As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 12, 2019.
Registration No. 333-
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
South Plains Financial, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrants principal executive offices)
Curtis C. Griffith
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
5219 City Bank Parkway
Lubbock, Texas 79407
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Peter G. Weinstock
Heather A. Eastep
Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP
1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 3700
Dallas, Texas 75202
(214) 880-0011 (facsimile)
Chet A. Fenimore
Derek W. McGee
Fenimore, Kay, Harrison & Ford, LLP
812 San Antonio Street, Suite 600
Austin, Texas 78701
(512) 583-5940 (facsimile)
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. o
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer, smaller reporting company and emerging growth company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer ☒
Smaller reporting company o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Emerging growth company ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. o
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to Be Registered
Common Stock, par value $1.00 per share
|(1)||Includes shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of common stock from the registrant.|
|(2)||Estimated solely for purposes of calculating the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, based upon an estimate of the maximum aggregate offering price.|
The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We and the selling shareholders may not sell these securities until the Registration Statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 12, 2019
This is the initial public offering of South Plains Financial, Inc. We are offering shares of our common stock and the selling shareholders are offering shares of our common stock. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling shareholders.
Prior to this offering, there has been no established public market for our common stock. We anticipate that the public offering price of our common stock will be between $ and $ . We have applied to list our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol SPFI.
Investing in our common stock involves risk. See Risk Factors beginning on page 13.
We are an emerging growth company under the federal securities laws and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.
Public offering price
Proceeds to us, before expenses
Proceeds to the selling shareholders, before expenses
|(1)||See Underwriting for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.|
The underwriters have an option to purchase up to an additional shares from us at the public offering price, less the underwriting discount, within 30 days from the date of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Shares of our common stock are not savings accounts or deposits and are not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.
The shares of common stock will be ready for delivery on or about , 2019.
Keefe, Bruyette & Woods
Sandler O’Neill + Partners, L.P.
A Stifel Company
The date of this prospectus is , 2019.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Prospectus
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered to you. We, the selling shareholders and the underwriters have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. We, the selling shareholders and the underwriters are not making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
Unless we state otherwise or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to we, our, us, ourselves, our company, and the Company refer to South Plains Financial, Inc., a Texas corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries. References in this prospectus to City Bank and the Bank refer to City Bank, a Texas banking association and our wholly-owned consolidated subsidiary.
This prospectus describes the specific details regarding this offering and the terms and conditions of our common stock being offered hereby and the risks of investing in our common stock. For additional information, please see the section entitled Where You Can Find More Information.
You should not interpret the contents of this prospectus to be legal, business, investment or tax advice. You should consult with your own advisors for that type of advice and consult with them about the legal, tax, business, financial and other issues that you should consider before investing in our common stock.
Unless otherwise stated, all information in this prospectus gives effect to a 29-for-1 stock dividend, whereby each holder of our common stock received 29 additional shares of common stock for each share owned as of the record date of March 11, 2019, which was distributed the same day. The stock dividend has the effect of a stock split on outstanding shares and per share figures, and it has been retroactively applied to all periods presented in this prospectus.
Unless otherwise stated, all information in this prospectus assumes that the underwriters have not exercised their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock.
Market and Industry Data
Within this prospectus, we reference certain market, industry and demographic data, forecasts and other statistical information. We have obtained this data, forecasts and information from various independent, third party industry sources and publications. Nothing in the data, forecasts or information used or derived from third party sources should be construed as advice. Some data and other information are also based on our good faith estimates, which are derived from our review of industry publications and surveys and independent sources. We believe that these sources and estimates are reliable, but have not independently verified them. Statements as to our market position are based on market data currently available to us. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the economic, employment, industry and other market data presented herein, these estimates involve inherent risks and uncertainties and are based on assumptions that are subject to change.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of reduced reporting requirements and is relieved of certain other significant requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As an emerging growth company:
|•||we may present as few as two years of audited financial statements and two years of related management discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations;|
|•||we are exempt from the requirement to obtain an attestation and report from our auditors on management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;|
|•||we are permitted to provide less extensive disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements; and|
|•||we are not required to give our shareholders non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements.|
In this prospectus we have elected to take advantage of the reduced disclosure requirements relating to the presentation and discussion of our audited financial statements and executive compensation, and in the future we may take advantage of any or all of these exemptions for so long as we remain an emerging growth company. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the end of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities and (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
In addition to the relief described above, the JOBS Act permits us an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards affecting public companies. We have elected to take advantage of this extended transition period, which means that the financial statements included in this prospectus, as well as any financial statements that we file in the future, will not be subject to all new or revised accounting standards generally applicable to public companies for the transition period for so long as we remain an emerging growth company or until we affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act.
Termination of S Corporation Status
Beginning January 1, 1998, the Company elected to be taxed for U.S. federal income tax purposes as an S corporation, or S Corporation or S Corp, under the provisions of Sections 1361 to 1379 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. As a result, our net income had not been subject to, and we had not paid, U.S. federal income tax, and no provision or liability for U.S. federal income tax had been included in our consolidated financial statements. Instead, for U.S. federal income tax purposes our taxable income was passed through to our shareholders.
Effective May 31, 2018, the Company revoked its S Corporation election and the Company became taxed as a C Corporation under the provisions of Sections 301 to 385 of the Code (which treat the corporation as an entity that is subject to an entity level U.S. federal income tax). We established a deferred tax asset to reflect the S Corporation revocation. Thus, our net income is now subject to U.S. federal income tax and we bear the liability for those taxes. Unless otherwise stated, all information in this prospectus, including consolidated net income, return on average assets, return on average shareholders equity and earnings per share, is presented as if we had converted from an S Corporation to a C Corporation at the beginning of each respective period using a statutory tax rate for federal income taxes of 35.0% prior to January 1, 2018 and 21.0% after January 1, 2018.
The Company calculates its pro forma C Corporation net income, return on average assets, return on average shareholders equity and earnings per share using a statutory tax rate for federal income taxes of 35.0% prior to January 1, 2018 and 21.0% after January 1, 2018. This calculation reflects only the revocation of the Companys status as an S Corporation and does not give effect to any other transaction. As our state income taxes are insignificant, they are not reflected in these calculations. For our comparative C Corporation and S Corporation financial information, see Selected Historical Consolidated Financial and Operating Information.
While we were an S Corporation, our shareholders were subject to a shareholder agreement that was intended to preserve our S Corporation status, which we amended and restated when we became a C Corporation. At the 2019 annual meeting of shareholders, our shareholders approved the termination of that shareholder agreement.
ESOP Repurchase Right Termination
In accordance with applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, the terms of the South Plains Financial, Inc. Employee Stock Ownership Plan, or ESOP, currently provide that ESOP participants have the right, for a specified period of time, to require us to repurchase shares of our common stock that are distributed to them by the ESOP. The shares of common stock held by the ESOP are reflected in our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 as a line item called ESOP owned shares appearing between total liabilities and shareholders equity. As a result, the ESOP-owned shares are deducted from shareholders equity in our consolidated balance sheet. This repurchase right will terminate upon the closing of this offering and the listing of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, which we sometimes refer to as the ESOP Repurchase Right Termination, whereupon our repurchase liability will be extinguished and thereafter the ESOP-owned shares will not be deducted from shareholders equity.
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before you decide to invest, you should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all other information included in this prospectus. We believe the risks described below are the risks that are material to us. Any of the following risks, as well as risks that we do not know or currently deem immaterial, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In that case, you could experience a partial or complete loss of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business and Market
Our business has been and may continue to be adversely affected by current conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally.
Our business and operations, which primarily consist of lending money to customers in the form of loans, borrowing money from customers in the form of deposits and investing in securities, are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the U.S. Uncertainty about the federal fiscal policymaking process, and the medium and long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and U.S. economy, is a concern for businesses, consumers and investors in the U.S. In addition, economic conditions in foreign countries, including global political hostilities, U.S. and foreign tariff policies and uncertainty over the stability of the euro currency, could affect the stability of global financial markets, which could hinder domestic economic growth. The current economic environment is characterized by interest rates at historically low levels, which impacts our ability to attract deposits and to generate attractive earnings through our investment portfolio. Our business is also significantly affected by monetary and related policies of the U.S. government and its agencies. Rising short term interest rates also may negatively affect the ability of our borrowers to repay their indebtedness subjecting us to potential loan losses. Current monetary policy has led to rising short term interest rates and a flattening, or at times even inverted, yield curve which affects our core business of intermediation of short term funding into longer term assets, impacting our ability to generate attractive returns. Changes in any of these policies are influenced by macroeconomic conditions and other factors that are beyond our control. Adverse economic conditions and government policy responses to such conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. All of these factors are detrimental to our business, and the interplay between these factors can be complex and unpredictable.
We may grow through mergers or acquisitions, a strategy which may not be successful or, if successful, may produce risks in successfully integrating and managing the merged companies or acquisitions and may dilute our shareholders.
As part of our growth strategy, we may pursue mergers and acquisitions of banks and nonbank financial services companies within or outside our principal market areas. We regularly identify and explore specific acquisition opportunities as part of our ongoing business practices, including our acquisition of an online mortgage platform and staff from an Overland Park, Kansas-based mortgage company at the end of November 2018. However, we have no current arrangements, understandings, or agreements to make any material acquisitions. We face significant competition from numerous other financial services institutions, many of which will have greater financial resources or more liquid securities than we do, when considering acquisition opportunities. Accordingly, attractive acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in identifying or completing any future acquisitions.
Mergers and acquisitions involve numerous risks, any of which could harm our business, including:
|•||difficulties in integrating the operations, management, products and services, technologies, existing contracts, accounting processes and personnel of the target and realizing the anticipated synergies of the combined businesses;|
|•||difficulties in supporting and transitioning customers of the target;|
|•||diversion of financial and management resources from existing operations;|
|•||assumption of nonperforming loans;|
|•||the price we pay or other resources that we devote may exceed the value we realize, or the value we could have realized if we had allocated the purchase price or other resources to another opportunity;|
|•||entering new markets or areas in which we have limited or no experience;|
|•||potential loss of key personnel and customers from either our business or the target’s business;|
|•||assumption of unanticipated problems or latent liabilities of the target; and|
|•||inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition costs.|
Mergers and acquisitions also frequently result in the recording of goodwill and other intangible assets, which are subject to potential impairments in the future and that could harm our financial results. In addition, if we finance acquisitions by issuing convertible debt or equity securities, our existing shareholders may be diluted, which could negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
As a result, if we fail to properly evaluate mergers, acquisitions or investments, we may not achieve the anticipated benefits of any such merger or acquisition, and we may incur costs in excess of what we anticipate. The failure to successfully evaluate and execute mergers, acquisitions or investments or otherwise adequately address these risks could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to implement our business strategy, our financial performance and our growth could be materially and adversely affected.
Our future financial performance and success are dependent in large part upon our ability to implement our business plan successfully. If we are unable to do so, our long-term growth and profitability may be adversely affected. Even if we are able to implement some or all of the initiatives of our business plan successfully, our operating results may not improve to the extent we anticipate, or at all. Implementation of our strategic plan could also be affected by a number of factors beyond our control, such as increased competition, legal developments, government regulation, general economic conditions or increased operating costs or expenses. In addition, to the extent we have misjudged the nature and extent of industry trends or our competition, we may have difficulty in achieving our strategic objectives. Any failure to implement our business strategy successfully may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may decide to alter or discontinue certain aspects of our business strategy at any time.
We may not be able to manage the risks associated with our anticipated growth and potential expansion through de novo branching.
Our business strategy includes evaluating potential strategic opportunities which includes potentially growing through de novo branching. De novo branching carries with it certain potential risks, including significant startup costs and anticipated initial operating losses; an inability to gain regulatory approval; an inability to secure the services of qualified senior management to operate the de novo banking location and successfully integrate and promote our corporate culture; poor market reception for de novo banking locations established in markets where we do not have a preexisting reputation; challenges posed by local economic conditions; challenges associated with securing attractive locations at a reasonable cost; and the additional strain on management resources and internal systems and controls. Failure to adequately manage the risks associated with our anticipated growth through de novo branching could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to adequately measure and limit our credit risk, which could lead to unexpected losses.
As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that our loan customers may not repay their loans according to the terms of these loans and the collateral securing the payment of these loans may be insufficient to fully compensate us for the outstanding balance of the loan plus the costs to dispose of the collateral. We may experience significant loan losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Management makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of our loan portfolio, including the diversification by industry of our commercial loan portfolio, the amount of nonperforming loans and related collateral, the volume, growth and composition of our loan portfolio, the effects on the loan portfolio of current economic indicators and their probable impact on borrowers and the evaluation of our loan portfolio through our internal loan review process and other relevant factors.
Accordingly, we maintain an allowance for loan losses that represents managements judgment of probable losses and risks inherent in our loan portfolio. At December 31, 2018, we had on a consolidated basis an
allowance for loan losses of $23.1 million based on our overall evaluation of the risks of our loan portfolio, which represents approximately 1.18% of our total loans. The allowance for loan losses reflected an increase of $1.7 million over our allowance as of December 31, 2017.
There is no precise method of predicting loan losses, and therefore, we always face the risk that charge offs in future periods will exceed our allowance for loan losses and that additional increases in the allowance for loan losses will be required. The level of the allowance for loan losses reflects our managements continuing evaluation of specific credit risks; loan loss experience; current loan portfolio quality; present economic, political and regulatory conditions; industry concentrations; and other unidentified losses inherent in the Banks current loan portfolio. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and judgment and requires the Bank to make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends. Changes in economic conditions affecting borrowers, increases in our nonperforming loans, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of the Banks control, may require an increase in the allowance for loan losses.
If real estate markets or the economy in general deteriorate, the Bank may experience increased delinquencies and credit losses. The allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover actual loan-related losses. Additionally, banking regulators may require the Bank to increase its allowance for loan losses in the future, which could have a negative effect on the Banks financial condition and results of operations. Additions to the allowance for loan losses will result in a decrease in net earnings and capital and could hinder our ability to grow our assets.
A new accounting standard will result in a significant change in how we recognize credit losses and may result in material increases to our allowance for loan losses.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board has adopted a new accounting standard referred to as Current Expected Credit Loss, or CECL. As we are an emerging growth company and intend to take advantage of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised financial accounting standards under the JOBS Act, CECL will be effective for the Company and the Bank for our first fiscal quarter after December 15, 2021. This standard will require financial institutions to determine periodic estimates of lifetime expected credit losses on loans, and recognize the expected credit losses as allowances for loan losses. This will change the current method of providing allowances for loan losses that are probable, which would likely require us to increase our allowance for loan losses, and to greatly increase the types of data we would need to collect and review to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses. In anticipation of the adoption of CECL, we have incurred, and will likely continue to incur, significant additional expense to comply with the new standard.
Many of our loans are to commercial borrowers, which have a higher degree of risk than other types of loans.
As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $1.3 billion of loans to commercial borrowers, which include approximately $887.4 million in loans secured by real estate to those commercial borrowers. Loans to commercial borrowers represent approximately 68.9% of total loans. Loans to commercial borrowers are often larger and involve greater risks than other types of lending. Because payments on these loans are often dependent on the successful operation or development of the property or business involved, their repayment is more sensitive than other types of loans to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the general economy. In general, these loans are collateralized by real estate and general business assets, including, among other things, accounts receivable, inventory and equipment and are typically backed by a personal guaranty of the borrower or principal. The collateral securing such may decline in value more rapidly than we anticipate, exposing us to increased credit risk.
Accordingly, a downturn in the real estate market and economy could heighten our risk related to commercial loans, particularly commercial real estate loans. Unlike residential mortgage loans, which generally are made on the basis of the borrowers ability to make repayment from their employment and other income and which are secured by real property whose value tends to be more easily ascertainable, commercial loans typically are made on the basis of the borrowers ability to make repayment from the cash flow of the commercial venture. If the cash flow from business operations is reduced, the borrowers ability to repay the loan may be
impaired. As a result of the larger average size of each commercial loan as compared with other loans such as residential loans, as well as the collateral which is generally less readily marketable, losses incurred on a small number of commercial loans could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Because a portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of real estate loans, negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of collateral securing our real estate loans and result in loan and other losses.
As of December 31, 2018, approximately 64.9% of our loan portfolio was comprised of loans with real estate as a primary component of collateral. Adverse developments affecting real estate values, particularly in our markets, could increase the credit risk associated with our real estate loan portfolio. Real estate values may experience periods of fluctuation, and the market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time. Adverse changes affecting real estate values and the liquidity of real estate in one or more of our markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio, and could result in losses that adversely affect credit quality, financial condition and results of operation. Negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity in our market areas could significantly impair the value of property pledged as collateral on loans and affect our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure without a loss or additional losses. Collateral may have to be sold for less than the outstanding balance of the loan, which could result in losses on such loans. Such declines and losses could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and growth prospects. If real estate values decline, it is also more likely that we would be required to increase our allowance for loan losses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Appraisals and other valuation techniques we use in evaluating and monitoring loans secured by real property, other real estate owned and repossessed personal property may not accurately describe the net value of the asset.
In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made, and, as real estate values may change significantly in value in relatively short periods of time (especially in periods of heightened economic uncertainty), this estimate may not accurately describe the net value of the real property collateral after the loan is made. As a result, we may not be able to realize the full amount of any remaining indebtedness if we foreclose on and sell the relevant property. In addition, we rely on appraisals and other valuation techniques to establish the value of our other real estate owned, or OREO, and personal property that we acquire through foreclosure proceedings and to determine certain loan impairments. If any of these valuations are inaccurate, our consolidated financial statements may not reflect the correct value of our OREO, and our allowance for loan losses may not reflect accurate loan impairments. This could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our commercial real estate loan portfolio exposes us to risks that may be greater than the risks related to our other mortgage loans.
Our loan portfolio includes non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans for individuals and businesses for various purposes, which are secured by commercial properties, as well as real estate construction and development loans. As of December 31, 2018, our non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans totaled $612.8 million, or 31.3%, of our total loan portfolio. These loans typically involve repayment dependent upon income generated, or expected to be generated, by the property securing the loan in amounts sufficient to cover operating expenses and debt service, which may be adversely affected by changes in the economy or local market conditions. These loans expose us to greater credit risk than loans secured by residential real estate because the collateral securing these loans typically cannot be liquidated as easily as residential real estate because there are fewer potential purchasers of the collateral. Additionally, non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans generally involve relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Accordingly, charge-offs on non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans may be larger on a per loan basis than those incurred with our residential or consumer loan portfolios. Unexpected deterioration in the credit quality of our commercial real estate loan portfolio would require us to increase our provision for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability, and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our portfolio of indirect dealer lending exposes us to increased credit risks.
At December 31, 2018, $195.0 million, or 10.0% of our total loan portfolio, consisted of indirect dealer loans, originated through automobile dealers for the purchase of new or used automobiles, as well as recreational vehicles, boats, and personal watercraft. We serve customers that cover a range of creditworthiness and the required terms and rates are reflective of those risk profiles. Auto loans are inherently risky as they are often secured by assets that may be difficult to locate and can depreciate rapidly. In some cases, repossessed collateral for a defaulted auto loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment for the outstanding loan and the remaining deficiency may not warrant further substantial collection efforts against the borrower. Auto loan collections depend on the borrowers continuing financial stability, and therefore, are more likely to be adversely affected by job loss, divorce, illness, or personal bankruptcy. Additional risk elements associated with indirect lending include the limited personal contact with the borrower as a result of indirect lending through non-bank channels, namely automobile dealers.
The small to medium-sized businesses that we lend to may have fewer resources to weather adverse business conditions, which may impair their ability to repay a loan, and such impairment could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our business development and marketing strategies primarily result in us serving the banking and financial services needs of small- to medium-sized businesses. These businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities, frequently have smaller market shares than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand or compete and may experience substantial volatility in operating results, any of which may impair a borrowers ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small- to medium-sized business often depends on the management skills, talents and efforts of one or two people or a small group of people, and the death, disability or resignation of one or more of these people could have a material adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay its loans. If general economic conditions negatively impact Texas, New Mexico or the specific markets in these states in which we operate and small to medium-sized businesses are adversely affected or our borrowers are otherwise affected by adverse business conditions, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Agricultural lending and volatility in commodity prices may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
At December 31, 2018, agricultural loans were $150.7 million, or 7.7% of our total loan portfolio. Agricultural lending involves a greater degree of risk and typically involves higher principal amounts than many other types of loans. Repayment is dependent upon the successful operation of the business, which is greatly dependent on many things outside the control of either us or the borrowers. These factors include adverse weather conditions that prevent the planting of a crops or limit crop yields (such as hail, drought, fires and floods), loss of livestock due to disease or other factors, declines in market prices for agricultural products (both domestically and internationally) and the impact of government regulations (including changes in price supports, subsidies and environmental regulations). Volatility in commodity prices could adversely impact the ability of borrowers in these industries to perform under the terms of their borrowing arrangements with us, and as a result, a severe and prolonged decline in commodity prices may have a material adverse effect our financial condition and results of operations. It is also difficult to project future commodity prices as they are dependent upon many different factors beyond our control. In addition, many farms are dependent on a limited number of key individuals whose injury or death may significantly affect the successful operation of the farm. Consequently, agricultural loans may involve a greater degree of risk than other types of loans, particularly in the case of loans that are unsecured or secured by rapidly depreciating assets such as farm equipment (some of which is highly specialized with a limited or no market for resale), or assets such as livestock or crops. In such cases, any repossessed collateral for a defaulted agricultural operating loan my not provide an adequate source of repayment of the outstanding loan balance as a result of the greater likelihood of damage, loss or depreciation or because the assessed value of the collateral exceeds the eventual realization value.
We generate noninterest income through the sale of crop insurance products, and a termination of or substantial changes to the Federal crop insurance program would adversely impact our revenues from such business
Through the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, the federal government subsidizes insurance companies by assuming an increasingly higher portion of losses incurred by farmers as a result of weather-related and other
perils as well as commodity price fluctuations. The federal government also subsidizes the premium cost to farmers for multi-peril crop yield and revenue insurance. Without this risk assumption, losses incurred by insurers would be higher, increasing the premium on such insurance, and without the premium subsidy, the number of farmers purchasing multi-peril crop insurance would decline significantly. Periodically, members of the United States Congress propose to significantly reduce the governments involvement in the federal crop insurance program in an effort to reduce government spending. If legislation is adopted to reduce the amount of risk the government assumes, reduce the amount of insurance premium subsidies provided to farmers or otherwise change the coverage provided under multi-peril crop insurance policies, purchases of multi-peril crop insurance could experience a significant decline nationwide and in our market areas. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Bank had approximately $6.9 million in noninterest income attributable to sales of crop insurance.
We intend to grow our energy loan portfolio, and sustained low oil prices, volatility in oil prices and downturns in the energy industry, including in Texas, could lead to increased credit losses in our energy portfolio and weaker demand for energy lending.
Although our energy loan portfolio is relatively small, the energy industry is a significant sector in our markets in Texas, and we intend to increase our energy lending. A downturn or lack of growth in the energy industry and energy-related business, including sustained low oil prices or the failure of oil prices to rise in the future, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Oil and gas prices declined significantly during 2018. The full impact to the U.S. economy, and to banks in general, of these decreases and the overall oil and gas price volatility is yet to be determined. As of December 31, 2018, our energy loans, which include loans to exploration and production companies, midstream companies and oilfield service companies, totaled $30.9 million, or 1.6% of gross loans held for investment, as compared to $39.6 million, or 2.2% of gross loans held for investment as of December 31, 2017. In addition to our direct exposure to energy loans, we also have indirect exposure to energy prices, as some of our non-energy customers businesses are directly affected by volatility with the oil and gas industry and energy prices. Prolonged or further pricing pressure on oil and gas could lead to increased credit stress in our energy portfolio, increased losses associated with our energy portfolio, increased utilization of our contractual obligations to extend credit and weaker demand for energy lending. Such a decline or general uncertainty resulting from continued volatility could have other adverse impacts, such as job losses in industries tied to energy, increased spending habits, lower borrowing needs, higher transaction deposit balances or a number of other effects that are difficult to isolate or quantify, particularly in states with significant dependence on the energy industry like Texas and New Mexico, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in U.S. trade policies and other factors beyond the Companys control, including the imposition of tariffs and retaliatory tariffs, may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Following the U.S. presidential election in 2016, there has been discussion and dialogue regarding potential changes to U.S. trade policies, legislation, treaties and tariffs, including trade policies and tariffs affecting other countries, including China, the European Union, Canada and Mexico and retaliatory tariffs by such countries. Tariffs and retaliatory tariffs have been imposed, and additional tariffs and retaliation tariffs have been proposed. Such tariffs, retaliatory tariffs or other trade restrictions on products and materials that our customers import or export, including among others, cotton, could impact the prices of our customers products, which could reduce demand for such products, reduce our customers margins, and adversely impact their revenues, financial results and ability to service their debt. In addition, to the extent changes in the political environment have a negative impact on us or on the markets in which we operate our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted in the future. However, a de minimis amount of collateral securing our loans is located outside of the U.S.
It remains unclear what the U.S. administration or foreign governments will or will not do with respect to tariffs already imposed, additional tariffs that may be imposed, or international trade agreements and policies. On October 1, 2018, the United States, Canada and Mexico agreed to a new trade deal to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement, which is subject to congressional approval which is not expected until 2019 and various components of the agreement are not effective until 2020. The full impact of this agreement on us, our customers and on the economic conditions in our markets is currently unknown. A trade war or other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements or policies has the potential to negatively
impact our and/or our customers costs, demand for our customers products, and/or the U.S. economy or certain sectors thereof and, thus, adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Banks profitability and liquidity may be adversely affected by deterioration in the credit quality of, or defaults by, third parties who owe it money.
The Bank is exposed to the risk that third parties that owe it money will not perform their obligations. These parties may default on their obligations to the Banks due to bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, operational failure or other reasons. The banks rights against third parties may not be enforceable in all circumstances. In addition, deterioration in the credit quality of third parties whose securities or obligations the Bank holds could result in losses and/or adversely affect the Banks ability to use those securities or obligations for liquidity purposes. The bank relies on representations of potential borrowers and/or guarantors as to the accuracy and completeness of certain financial information. The banks financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted if the financial statements or other information that the Bank relies upon is materially misleading.
The amount of nonperforming assets may increase and can take significant time and resources to resolve.
Nonperforming assets adversely affect our net income in various ways. We generally do not record interest income on nonperforming loans, thereby adversely affecting our income and increasing our loan administration costs. When we take collateral in foreclosures and similar proceedings, we are required to mark the related asset to the then fair market value of the collateral, which may ultimately result in a loss. An increase in the level of nonperforming assets increases our risk profile and may impact the capital levels our regulators believe are appropriate in light of the ensuing risk profile. While we reduce problem assets through loan workouts, restructurings and otherwise, decreases in the value of the underlying collateral, or in these borrowers performance or financial condition, whether or not due to economic and market conditions beyond our control, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the resolution of nonperforming assets requires significant commitments of time from management, which may materially and adversely impact their ability to perform their other responsibilities. There can be no assurance that we will not experience future increases in nonperforming assets. At December 31, 2018, the Bank had a total of $9.2 million of nonperforming assets (defined as nonperforming loans, which include nonaccrual loans and loans past due 90 days or more, plus OREO), compared with $16.7 million of nonperforming loans at December 31, 2017.
At December 31, 2018, the Bank had $2.3 million in OREO, compared to $2.8 million as of December 31, 2017. If the amount of OREO increases, the Banks losses and the costs and expenses to maintain the real estate likewise increase. Any increase in losses and maintenance costs and expenses due to banks may have material adverse effects on the Banks business, financial condition and results of operations. Such effects may be particularly pronounced in a market of reduced real estate values and excess inventory, which may make the disposition of OREO properties more difficult, increase maintenance costs and expenses and reduce our ultimate realization from any OREO sales.
The properties that we own and certain foreclosed real estate assets could subject us to environmental risks and associated costs.
There is a risk that hazardous substances or wastes, contaminants, pollutants or other environmentally restricted substances could be discovered on our properties or our foreclosed assets (particularly in the case of real estate loans). In this event, we might be required to remove the substances from the affected properties or to engage in abatement procedures at our cost and expense. Besides being directly liable under certain federal and state statutes for our own conduct, we may also be held liable under certain circumstances for actions of borrowers or other third parties on property that secures our loans. Potential environmental liability could include the cost of remediation and also damages for any injuries caused to third parties. We cannot assure you that the cost of removal or abatement would not substantially exceed the value of the affected properties or the loans secured by those properties, that we would have adequate remedies against the prior owners or other responsible parties or that we would be able to resell the affected properties either before or after completion of any such removal or abatement procedures. If material environmental problems are discovered before foreclosure, we generally will not foreclose on the related collateral or will transfer ownership of the loan to a subsidiary. It should be noted, however, that the transfer of the property or loans to a subsidiary may not protect us from environmental liability. Furthermore, despite these actions on our part, the value of the property as collateral will
generally be substantially reduced and, as a result, we may suffer a loss upon collection of the loan. Currently, we are not, and the Company is not, a party to any pending legal proceeding under any environmental statute, nor are we aware of any instances that may give rise to such liability.
Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we report our financial condition and results of operations and we use estimates in determining the fair value of certain of our assets, which estimates may prove to be imprecise and result in significant changes in valuation which could affect our, and thus the Companys, shareholders equity.
A portion of our assets are carried on the balance sheet at fair value, including investment securities. Generally, for assets that are reported at fair value, we use quoted market prices or have third parties analyze our holdings and assign a market value. We rely on the analysis provided by our service providers. However, different valuations could be derived if our service providers used different financial models or assumptions.
As it relates to our investment securities portfolio, declines in the fair value of individual available-for-sale securities below their cost that are other-than-temporary would be included in earnings as realized losses. In estimating other-than-temporary impairment losses, management of the Company considers (i) whether there is intent to sell securities prior to recovery and/or maturity; (ii) whether it is more likely than not that securities will have to be sold prior to recovery and/or maturity; and (iii) whether there is a credit loss component to the impairment. An economic downturn could result in losses, as determined under our accounting methodologies that may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects.
The fair value of our investment securities can fluctuate due to factors outside of our control.
As of December 31, 2018, the fair value of our portfolio of available-for-sale investment securities was approximately $338.2 million, which included a net unrealized loss of approximately $2.8 million. Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions in respect of the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, and changes in market interest rates and continued instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could cause other-than-temporary impairments and realized or unrealized losses in future periods and declines in other comprehensive income, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects. The process for determining whether impairment of a security is other-than-temporary often requires complex, subjective judgments about whether there has been a significant deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer, whether management has the intent or ability to hold a security for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value, the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security, and other relevant factors.
Our largest loan relationships make up a material percentage of our total loan portfolio.
As of December 31, 2018, our 20 largest borrowing relationships ranged from approximately $15.5 million to $31.0 million (including unfunded commitments) and totaled approximately $419.8 million in total commitments (representing, in the aggregate, 18.2% of our total outstanding commitments as of December 31, 2018). Each of the loans associated with these relationships has been underwritten in accordance with our underwriting policies and limits. Along with other risks inherent in these loans, such as the deterioration of the underlying businesses or property securing these loans, this concentration of borrowers presents a risk that, if one or more of these relationships were to become delinquent or suffer default, we could be exposed to material losses. The allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to cover losses associated with any of these relationships, and any loss or increase in the allowance could negatively affect our earnings and capital. Even if these loans are adequately collateralized, an increase in classified assets could harm our reputation with our regulators and inhibit our ability to execute our business plan.
Our largest deposit relationships currently make up a material percentage of our deposits and the withdrawal of deposits by our largest depositors could force us to fund our business through more expensive and less stable sources.
At December 31, 2018, our 20 largest deposit relationships accounted for approximately 20.4% of our total deposits. Withdrawals of deposits by any one of our largest depositors or by one of our related customer groups could force us to rely more heavily on other potentially more expensive and less stable sources of funding for
our business and withdrawal demands, adversely affecting our net interest margin and results of operations. Additionally, such circumstances could require us to raise deposit rates in an attempt to attract new deposits, which could adversely affect our results of operations. Under applicable regulations, if the Bank were no longer well capitalized, the Bank would not be able to accept brokered deposits without the approval of the FDIC.
Public funds deposits are an important source of funds for us and a reduced level of those deposits may hurt our profits.
Public funds deposits are a significant source of funds for our lending and investment activities. At December 31, 2018, $295.4 million, or 13.0% of our total deposits, consisted of public funds deposits from local government entities, primarily domiciled in the state of Texas, such as townships, school districts, hospital districts, sheriff departments and other municipalities, which are collateralized by letters of credit from the FHLB and investment securities. Given our use of these high-average balance public funds deposits as a source of funds, our inability to retain such funds could adversely affect our liquidity. Further, our public funds deposits are primarily interest-bearing transaction accounts and are therefore more sensitive to interest rate risks. If we are forced to pay higher rates on our public funds accounts to retain those funds, or if we are unable to retain such funds and we are forced to resort to other sources of funds for our lending and investment activities, such as borrowings from the FHLB, the interest expense associated with these other funding sources may be higher than the rates we are currently paying on our public funds deposits, which could adversely affect our net income.
We rely on deposits for funding, which can be adversely affected by local and general economic conditions.
As of December 31, 2018, $2.0 billion, or 86.3% of our deposits, consisted of demand, statement savings, money market, and NOW accounts. The $311.5 million remaining balance are time deposits, of which 52.4% are due to mature within one year. Based on our experience, we believe that our demand, statement savings, money market deposit accounts and commercial demand accounts are relatively stable sources of funds. Our ability to attract and maintain deposits, as well as our cost of funds, has been, and will continue to be, significantly affected by market and general economic conditions. If we increase interest rates paid to retain deposits, our earnings may be adversely affected.
Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and meet our obligations as they become due and could jeopardize our financial condition.
Liquidity is essential to the business of the Bank. Liquidity risk is the potential that the Bank will be unable to meet its obligations as they come due because of an inability to liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of loans and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on liquidity. The Banks access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance its activities or on acceptable terms could be impaired by factors that affect our organization specifically or the financial services industry or economy in general. Factors that could detrimentally impact access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of the Banks business activity as a result of a downturn in the markets in which its loans are concentrated or adverse regulatory actions against the Bank. Market conditions or other events could also negatively affect the level or cost of funding, affecting the Banks ongoing ability to accommodate liability maturities and deposit withdrawals, meet contractual obligations and fund asset growth and new business transactions at a reasonable cost, in a timely manner and without adverse consequences. Although management has implemented strategies to maintain sufficient and diverse sources of funding to accommodate planned as well as unanticipated changes in assets and liabilities under both normal and adverse conditions, any substantial, unexpected and/or prolonged change in the level or cost of liquidity could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Customers could pursue alternatives to bank deposits, causing us to lose a relatively inexpensive source of funding.
Checking and savings account balances and other forms of deposits can decrease when our deposit customers perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market, other non-depository investments or higher yielding deposits, as providing superior expected returns. Technology and other changes has made it more convenient for bank customers to transfer funds into alternative investments or other deposit accounts, including products offered by other financial institutions or non-bank service providers. Future increases in short-term interest rates could increase such transfers of deposits to higher yielding deposits or other investments either with
us or with external providers. In addition, our level of deposits may be affected by lack of consumer confidence in financial institutions, which have caused fewer depositors to be willing to maintain deposits that are not fully insured by the FDIC. Depositors may withdraw certain deposits from the Bank and place them in other institutions or invest uninsured funds in investments perceived as being more secure, such as securities issued by the U.S. Treasury. These consumer preferences may force us to pay higher interest rates or reduce fees to retain certain deposits and may constrain liquidity as we seek to meet funding needs caused by reduced deposit levels.
As interest rates rise from historically low levels in recent years, our deposits may not be as stable or as interest rate insensitive as similar deposits may have been in the past, and if the recovery of the U.S. economy continues, some existing or prospective deposit customers of banks generally, including the Bank, may be inclined to pursue other investment alternatives.
Efforts and initiatives we undertake to retain and increase deposits, including deposit pricing, can increase our costs. When bank customers move money out of bank deposits in favor of alternative investments or into higher yielding deposits, we can lose a relatively inexpensive source of funds, increasing our funding cost. As our assets grow, we may face increasing pressure to seek new deposits through expanded channels from new customers at favorable pricing, further increasing our costs.
We continually encounter technological changes which could result in us having fewer resources than many of our competitors to continue to invest in technological improvements.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able to effectively or timely implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers and clients. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Consumers may decide not to use banks to complete their financial transactions.
Technology and other changes are allowing parties to complete financial transactions through alternative methods that historically have involved banks. For example, consumers can now maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts, mutual funds or general-purpose reloadable prepaid cards. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and/or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as disintermediation, could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and the lower cost of deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our profitability is vulnerable to interest rate fluctuations.
Our profitability, like that of most financial institutions, is dependent to a large extent on our net interest income, which is the difference between our interest income on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and our interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. When interest-bearing liabilities mature or re-price more quickly than interest-earning assets in a given period, a significant increase in market interest rates could adversely affect net interest income. Conversely, when interest-earning assets mature or re-price more quickly than interest-bearing liabilities, falling interest rates could result in a decrease in net interest income.
In periods of increasing interest rates, loan originations may decline, and our borrowers may experience greater difficulties meeting their obligations, depending on the performance of the overall economy, which may adversely affect income from these lending activities. In such periods, originations of mortgage loans may also decrease, resulting in fewer loans that are available to be sold to investors. This could result in decreased interest income, decreased mortgage revenues and corresponding decreases in non-interest income from projected levels. In addition, during periods of reduced loan demand, results of operations may be adversely affected to the extent that we would be unable to reduce mortgage-related noninterest expenses commensurately with the decline in mortgage loan origination activity. Increases in interest rates could also adversely affect the market value of our fixed income assets.
We cannot predict fluctuations of market interest rates, which are affected by, among other factors, changes in inflation rates, levels of business activity, unemployment levels, monetary and fiscal policies of the United States and its agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve, money supply and domestic and foreign financial markets.
We may be adversely impacted by an economic downturn or a natural disaster affecting one or more of our market areas.
Because most of our business activities are conducted in Texas and New Mexico and most of our credit exposure is there, we are at risk from adverse economic, political or business developments, including a downturn in real estate values, agricultural activities, the oil and gas industry and natural hazards such as floods, ice storms and tornadoes that affect Texas and New Mexico. Although our customers business and financial interests may extend well beyond these market areas, adverse conditions that affect these market areas could reduce our growth rate, affect the ability of our customers to repay their loans, affect the value of collateral underlying loans, impact our ability to attract deposits, and generally affect our financial conditions and results of operations. Because of our geographic concentration, we may be less able than other regional or national financial institutions to diversify our credit risks across multiple markets.
The borrowing needs of our customers may increase, especially during a challenging economic environment, which could result in increased borrowing against our contractual obligations to extend credit.
A commitment to extend credit is a formal agreement to lend funds to a customer as long as there is no violation of any condition established under the agreement. The actual borrowing needs of our customers under these credit commitments have historically been lower than the contractual amount of the commitments. A significant portion of these commitments expire without being drawn upon. Because of the credit profile of our customers, we typically have a substantial amount of total unfunded credit commitments, which is not reflected on our balance sheet. As of December 31, 2018, we had $346.2 million in unfunded credit commitments to our customers. Actual borrowing needs of our customers may exceed our expectations, especially during a challenging economic environment when our customers companies may be more dependent on our credit commitments due to the lack of available credit elsewhere, the increasing costs of credit, or the limited availability of financings from venture firms. This could adversely affect our liquidity, which could impair our ability to fund operations and meet obligations as they become due and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Mortgage originations have decreased due to a slowdown in refinance activity, and this trend may continue.
Mortgage revenues, which are primarily recognized from the sale in the secondary market of mortgage loans, are a source of noninterest income for the Bank and a contributor to the Banks net income. Mortgage revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $21.4 million. As the result of the low level of market interest rates that existed for the past several years, demand for loans to refinance existing mortgages has remained strong. However, recent increases in market interest rates have lessened this demand. If market interest rates were to further increase, there will be fewer opportunities for financial institutions to originate loans to refinance existing mortgages. If mortgage originations decrease, projected mortgage revenues and noninterest income will decrease.
Secondary mortgage market conditions could have a material impact on our ability to resell originated mortgages on the secondary market.
In addition to being affected by interest rates, the secondary mortgage markets are also subject to investor demand for residential mortgage loans and increased investor yield requirements for those loans. These conditions may fluctuate or even worsen in the future. A reduction in our ability to resell mortgages that we originate on the secondary market would reduce our noninterest income from such sales and may increase our credit risk by causing us to retain mortgage loans that we would otherwise sell. As a result, a prolonged period of secondary market illiquidity may result in a reduction in our mortgage origination volumes which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation from our mortgage operations.
We may be required to repurchase mortgage loans in some circumstances, which could diminish our liquidity.
Historically, we have originated mortgage loans for sale in the secondary market. When mortgage loans are sold in the secondary market, we are required to make customary representations and warranties to the
purchasers about the mortgage loans and the manner in which they were originated. The mortgage loan sale agreements require us to repurchase or substitute mortgage loans or indemnify buyers against losses, in the event we breach these representations and warranties. In addition, we may be required to repurchase mortgage loans as a result of early payment default of the borrower on a mortgage loan. With respect to loans that are originated by us through our broker or correspondents, the remedies available against the originating broker or correspondent, if any, may not be as broad as the remedies available to a purchaser of mortgage loans against us or the originating broker or correspondent, if any, may not have the financial capacity to perform remedies that otherwise may be available. Therefore, if a purchaser enforces their remedies against us, we may not be able to recover losses from the originating broker or correspondent. If repurchase and indemnity demands increase and such demands are valid claims, it could diminish our liquidity, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The value of our mortgage servicing rights can be volatile.
We sell in the secondary market residential mortgage loans that we originate, which provides a meaningful portion of our non-interest income in the form of gains on the sale of mortgage loans. We also earn revenue from fees we receive for servicing mortgage loans. As a result of our mortgage servicing business, we have a growing portfolio of mortgage servicing rights. A mortgage servicing right is the right to service a mortgage loan—collect principal, interest, and escrow amounts—for a fee. We acquire mortgage servicing rights when we keep the servicing rights in connection with the sale of loans we have originated.
Changes in interest rates may impact our mortgage servicing revenues, which could negatively impact our non-interest income. When rates rise, net revenue from our mortgage servicing activities can increase due to slower prepayments. When rates fall, the value of our mortgage servicing rights usually tends to decline as a result of a higher volume of prepayments, resulting in a decline in our net revenue. It is possible that, because of economic conditions and/or a weak or deteriorating housing market, even if interest rates were to fall or remain low, mortgage originations may also fall or any increase in mortgage originations may not be enough to offset the decrease in the mortgage servicing rights value caused by the lower rates. Because the value of our mortgage servicing rights is capitalized on our balance sheet and evaluated on a quarterly basis, any significant decline in value could adversely affect our income, our capital ratios or require us to raise additional capital, which may not be available on favorable terms. We had $1.3 million of mortgage servicing rights as of December 31, 2018.
Our risk management framework may not be effective in mitigating risks or losses to us.
Our risk management framework is comprised of various processes, systems and strategies, and is designed to manage the types of risks to which we are subject, including credit, market, liquidity, interest rate, operational, reputation, business and compliance risks. Our framework also includes financial or other modeling methodologies that involve management assumptions and judgment. Our risk management framework may not be effective under all circumstances and may not adequately mitigate risk or loss to us. If our risk management framework is not effective, we could suffer unexpected losses and our business, financial condition, results of operations or growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. We may also be subject to potentially adverse regulatory consequences.
We are dependent on the use of data and modeling in our managements decision-making and faulty data or modeling approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or possibly subject us to regulatory scrutiny in the future.
The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitative analyses is endemic to bank decision-making, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. Stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, and the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations are all examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlies them. The use of statistical and quantitative models is also becoming more prevalent in regulatory compliance. We currently utilize stress testing for capital, credit and liquidity purposes and anticipate that model-derived testing may become more extensively implemented by regulators in the future.
We anticipate data-based modeling will penetrate further into bank decision-making, particularly risk management efforts, as the capacities developed to meet stress testing requirements are able to be employed more widely and in differing applications. While we believe these quantitative techniques and approaches
improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data or flawed quantitative approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or result in adverse regulatory scrutiny. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision-making. We seek to mitigate this risk by increasingly performing back-testing to analyze the accuracy of these techniques and approaches.
There are investment performance, fiduciary and asset servicing risks associated with our trust operations.
Our investment management, fiduciary and asset servicing businesses are significant to the business of the Company. Generating returns that satisfy clients in a variety of asset classes is important to maintaining existing business and attracting new business. Managing or servicing assets with reasonable prudence in accordance with the terms of governing documents and applicable laws is also important to client satisfaction. Failure to do so can generate liability, as can failure to manage the differing interests often involved in the exercise of fiduciary responsibilities or the failure to manage these risks adequately, all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or future prospects.
Our revenues, earnings and prospects with respect to the Investment Center at City Bank could be adversely affected if the securities markets decline.
Our results of operations related to the Investment Center at City Bank are affected by certain economic factors, including the level of the securities markets. If we experience adverse market conditions such as those experienced from 2008 to 2011, lack of investor confidence could result in investors further withdrawing from the markets, decreasing their rate of investment or reducing the amount of assets under management, any of which could adversely affect our revenues, earnings and growth prospects to a greater extent. Because our investment management fees are based on the value of assets under management at the Investment Center at City Bank, a decline in the value of these assets, including by virtue of a decline in the securities markets, adversely affects our revenues and earnings. In addition, a decline in the market value of these assets could cause our clients to withdraw funds in favor of investments they perceive as offering greater opportunity or lower risk, which could also negatively impact our revenues and earnings. The combination of adverse markets reducing sales and investment management fees could compound on each other and materially affect earnings.
New lines of business or new products and services may subject us to additional risks.
From time to time, we may implement or may acquire new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and new products and services, we may invest significant time and resources. We may not achieve target timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and new products or services and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as regulatory compliance obligations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our historical growth rate and performance may not be indicative of our future growth or financial results.
We may not be able to sustain our past rate of growth or grow our business at all. We have benefited from the recent low interest rate environment, which has provided us with high net interest margins which we use to grow our business. Higher rates may compress our margins and may impact our ability to grow. Consequently, our past results of operations will not necessarily be indicative of our future operations.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future, but sufficient capital may not be available when it is needed.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future to provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and business needs, particularly if our asset quality or earnings were to deteriorate significantly. Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on, among other things,
conditions in the capital and financial markets at that time, which are outside of our control, and our financial performance. Economic conditions or a loss of confidence in financial institutions may increase our cost of funding and limit access to certain customary sources of capital, including depositors, other financial institution borrowings and borrowings from the discount window of the Federal Reserve. An inability to raise additional capital/liquidity on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
We are exposed to cybersecurity risks associated with our internet-based systems and online commerce security.
Third party or internal systems and networks may fail to operate properly or become disabled due to deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Our operations are vulnerable to disruptions from human error, natural disasters, power loss, computer viruses, spam attacks, denial of service attacks, unauthorized access and other unforeseen events. Undiscovered data corruption could render our customer information inaccurate. These events may obstruct our ability to provide services and process transactions. While we believe we are in compliance with all applicable privacy and data security laws, an incident could put our customer confidential information at risk.
Although we have not experienced a cyber-incident which has been successful in compromising our data or systems, we can never be certain that all of our systems are entirely free from vulnerability to breaches of security or other technological difficulties or failures. We monitor and modify, as necessary, our protective measures in response to the perpetual evolution of cyber threats.
A breach in the security of any of our information systems, or other cyber incident, could have an adverse impact on, among other things, our revenue, ability to attract and maintain customers and business reputation. In addition, as a result of any breach, we could incur higher costs to conduct our business, to increase protection or related to remediation. Furthermore, our customers could terminate their accounts with us because of a cyber-incident which occurred on their own system or with that of an unrelated third party, which is outside of our control. In addition, a security breach could also subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability.
We depend on third party providers, and these providers may be unable to deliver, or refuse to deliver, necessary technological and customer services support for our systems in a timely manner at prices, quality levels, and volumes acceptable to us.
We outsource check processing, check imaging, electronic bill payment, statement rendering, internal audit, cybersecurity, IT management, and other services to third party vendors. While we believe that such providers will be able to continue to supply us with these essential services, they may be unable to do so in the short term or at prices or costs that are favorable to us, or at all. In addition, our agreements with each service provider are generally cancelable without cause by either party upon specified notice periods. If one of our third party service providers terminates its agreement with us and we are unable to replace it with another service provider, our operations may be interrupted. In particular, while we believe that we would be able to secure alternate providers for most of this essential technological and customer services support in a relatively short time frame, qualifying alternate providers or developing our own replacement technology services may be time consuming, costly, and may force us to change our services offered. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, our earnings could decrease, we could experience losses, and we could lose customers. In addition, we are obligated to exercise comprehensive risk management and oversight of third party providers involving critical activities, including through the adoption of risk management processes commensurate with the level of risk and complexity of our third party providers.
We are subject to certain operating risks related to employee error and customer, employee and third party misconduct, which could harm our reputation and business.
Employee error or employee and customer misconduct could subject us to financial losses or regulatory sanctions and seriously harm our reputation. Misconduct by our employees could include hiding unauthorized activities from us, improper or unauthorized activities on behalf of our customers or improper use of confidential information. It is not always possible to prevent employee error or misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. Because the nature of the financial services business involves a high volume of transactions, certain errors may be repeated or compounded before they are
discovered and successfully rectified. Our necessary dependence upon processing systems to record and process transactions and our large transaction volume may further increase the risk that employee errors, tampering or manipulation of those systems will result in losses that are difficult to detect. Employee error or misconduct could also subject us to financial claims. If our internal control systems fail to prevent or detect an occurrence, or if any resulting loss is not insured, exceeds applicable insurance limits or if insurance coverage is denied or not available, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about customers and counterparties.
In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we rely on information furnished to us by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements and other financial information. We also rely on representations of customers and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. While we have a practice of seeking to independently verify some of the customer information that we use in deciding whether to extend credit or to agree to a loan modification, including employment, assets, income and credit score, not all customer information is independently verified, and if any of the information that is independently verified (or any other information considered in the loan review process) is misrepresented and such misrepresentation is not detected prior to loan funding, the value of the loan may be significantly lower than expected. Whether a misrepresentation is made by the applicant, another third party or one of our employees, we generally bear the risk of loss associated with the misrepresentation. We may not detect all misrepresented information in our approval process. Any such misrepresented information could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Fraudulent activity could damage our reputation, disrupt our businesses, increase our costs and cause losses.
As a financial institution, we are inherently exposed to operational risk in the form of theft and other fraudulent activity by employees, customers and other third parties targeting us and our customers or data. Such activity may take many forms, including check fraud, electronic fraud, wire fraud, phishing, social engineering and other dishonest acts. Although the Company devotes substantial resources to maintaining effective policies and internal controls to identify and prevent such incidents, given the increasing sophistication of possible perpetrators, the Company may experience financial losses or reputational harm as a result of fraud.
We rely heavily on our management team and the unexpected loss of key officers may adversely affect our operations.
Our success has been and will continue to be greatly influenced by our ability to retain the services of existing senior management and, as we expand, to attract and retain qualified additional senior and middle management. Our senior executive officers have had, and will continue to have, a significant role in the development and management of our business. The loss of services of any of our executive officers could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results. Accordingly, should we lose the services of any of the executive officers, our Board of Directors may have to search outside of the Bank for a qualified permanent replacement. This search may be prolonged and we cannot assure you that we will be able to locate and hire a qualified replacement. If any of our executive officers leave their respective positions, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects may suffer.
We also depend upon the experience of the other officers of the Bank, the managers of our banking facilities and on their relationships with the communities they serve. We may not be able to retain our current personnel or attract additional qualified key persons as needed.
We may not be able to attract or retain key banking employees which could adversely impact our business and operations.
We expect future success to be driven in large part by the relationships maintained with our customers by our executives and senior lending officers. Our future successes and profitability are substantially dependent upon the management and banking abilities of our senior executives. We strive to attract and retain key banking professionals, management and staff. Competition to attract the best professionals in the industry can be intense, which will limit our ability to hire new professionals. Banking-related revenues and net income could be adversely affected in the event of the unexpected loss of key personnel.
Competition from other financial intermediaries may adversely affect our profitability.
We face substantial competition in originating loans and in attracting deposits. The competition in originating loans comes principally from other U.S. banks, mortgage banking companies, consumer finance companies, credit unions, insurance companies and other institutional lenders and purchasers of loans. We will encounter greater competition as we expand our operations. A number of institutions with which we compete have significantly greater assets, capital and other resources. Increased competition could require us to increase the rates we pay on deposits or lower the rates we offer on loans, which could adversely affect our profitability. Also, many of our non-bank competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. We expect competition to intensify due to financial institution consolidation; legislative, regulatory and technological changes; and the emergence of alternative banking sources. This competition may limit our future growth and earnings prospects.
We may incur substantial costs and other negative effects due to litigation, investigations or similar matters, or adverse facts and developments related thereto, could materially affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
We may be involved from time to time in a variety of litigation, investigations or similar matters arising out of our business. See Business—Litigation for further discussion of current litigation between the Bank and a townhome association and an owner of a townhome. It is inherently difficult to assess the outcome of these matters, and we may not prevail in proceedings or litigation. Our insurance may not cover all claims that may be asserted against us and indemnification rights to which we are entitled may not be honored, and any claims asserted against us, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, may harm our reputation. Should the ultimate judgments or settlements in any litigation or investigation significantly exceed our insurance coverage, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, premiums for insurance covering the financial and banking sectors are rising. We may not be able to obtain appropriate types or levels of insurance in the future, nor may we be able to obtain adequate replacement policies with acceptable terms or at historic rates, if at all.
The accuracy of our financial statements and related disclosures could be affected if the judgments, assumptions or estimates used in our critical accounting policies are inaccurate.
The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP, requires us to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Our critical accounting policies, which are included in the section captioned Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in this prospectus, describe those significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements that we consider critical because they require judgments, assumptions and estimates that materially affect our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. As a result, if future events or regulatory views concerning such analysis differ significantly from the judgments, assumptions and estimates in our critical accounting policies, those events or assumptions could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, in each case resulting in our need to revise or restate prior period financial statements, cause damage to our reputation and the price of our common stock and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to report our financial results accurately and timely, in which case our business may be harmed, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, we could be subject to regulatory penalties and the price of our common stock may decline.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting and for evaluating and reporting on that system of internal control. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. As a public company, we will be required to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and other rules that govern public companies. In particular, we will be required to certify our compliance with Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act beginning with our second annual report on Form 10-K, which will require us to furnish annually a report by management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, unless we remain
an emerging growth company and elect additional transitional relief available to emerging growth companies, our independent registered public accounting firm may be required to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning as of that second annual report on Form 10-K.
We will continue to periodically test and update, as necessary, our internal control systems, including our financial reporting controls. Our actions, however, may not be sufficient to result in an effective internal control environment, and any future failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could impair the reliability of our financial statements which in turn could harm our business, impair investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and our access to the capital markets, cause the price of our common stock to decline and subject us to regulatory penalties.
Negative public opinion could damage our reputation and adversely impact our earnings.
Reputation risk, or the risk to our business, earnings and capital from negative public opinion is inherent in our business. Negative public opinion can result from our actual or alleged conduct in any number of activities, including lending practices, corporate governance and acquisitions, and from actions taken by government regulators and community organizations in response to those activities. Negative public opinion can adversely affect our ability to keep and attract customers and employees and can expose us to litigation and regulatory action and adversely affect our results of operations. Although we take steps to minimize reputational risk in dealing with our customers and communities, this risk will always be present given the nature of our business.
If third parties infringe upon our intellectual property or if we were to infringe upon the intellectual property of third parties, we may expend significant resources enforcing or defending our rights or suffer competitive injury.
We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, trade secret laws and confidentiality provisions to establish and protect our proprietary rights. If we fail to successfully maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could suffer. Similarly, if we were to infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, our competitive position could suffer. Third parties may challenge, invalidate, circumvent, infringe or misappropriate our intellectual property, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to permit us to take advantage of current market trends or otherwise to provide competitive advantages, which could result in costly redesign efforts, discontinuance of certain product or service offerings or other competitive harm. We may also be required to spend significant resources to monitor and police our intellectual property rights. Others, including our competitors, may independently develop similar technology, duplicate our products or services or design around our intellectual property, and in such cases we may not be able to assert our intellectual property rights against such parties. Further, our contractual arrangements may not effectively prevent disclosure of our confidential information or provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of our confidential or proprietary information. We may have to litigate to enforce or determine the scope and enforceability of our intellectual property rights, trade secrets and know-how, which could be time-consuming and expensive, could cause a diversion of resources and may not prove successful. The loss of intellectual property protection or the inability to obtain rights with respect to third party intellectual property could harm our business and ability to compete. In addition, because of the rapid pace of technological change in our industry, aspects of our business and our products and services rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these third parties on reasonable terms or at all.
We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. We have exposure to different industries and counterparties, and through transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including broker-dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other financial intermediaries. In addition, we participate in loans originated by other institutions, and we participate in syndicated transactions (including shared national credits) in which other lenders serve as the lead bank. As a result, defaults by, declines in the financial condition of, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial institutions, financial service companies or the financial services industry generally, may lead to market-wide liquidity, asset quality or other problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. These problems, losses or defaults could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Until May 31, 2018, our Company was an S Corporation, and claims of taxing authorities related to our prior status as an S Corporation could harm us.
Until May 31, 2018, our Company was an S Corporation. Effective May 31, 2018, the Company revoked its S Corporation election and the Company became taxed as a C Corporation under the provisions of Sections 301 to 385 of the Code (which treat the corporation as an entity that is subject to an entity level U.S. federal income tax). If the unaudited, open tax years in which we were an S Corporation are audited by the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, and we are determined not to have qualified for, or to have violated, our S Corporation status, we likely would be obligated to pay corporate level tax, plus interest and possible penalties, with respect to those open tax years. This could result in tax liability with respect to all of the income we reported for periods when we believed we properly were treated as an S Corporation not subject to entity level taxation. Any such claims could result in additional costs to us and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Regulatory Environment
We are subject to extensive regulation, which increases the cost and expense of compliance and could limit or restrict our activities, which in turn may adversely impact our earnings and ability to grow.
We operate in a highly regulated environment and are subject to regulation, supervision and examination by a number of governmental regulatory agencies, including the Federal Reserve, the Texas Department of Banking, or TDB, and the FDIC. Regulations adopted by these agencies, which are generally intended to provide protection for depositors, customers and the Deposit Insurance Fund of the FDIC, or the DIF, rather than for the benefit of shareholders, govern a comprehensive range of matters relating to ownership and control of our shares, our acquisition of other companies and businesses, permissible activities for us to engage in, maintenance of adequate capital levels, dividend payments and other aspects of our operations.
In 2010 and 2011, in response to the financial crisis and recession that began in 2008, significant regulatory and legislative changes resulted in broad reform and increased regulation affecting financial institutions. The Dodd-Frank and Wall Street Consumer Protection Act, or Dodd-Frank Act, has created a significant shift in the way financial institutions operate. The Dodd-Frank Act also created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or CFPB, to implement consumer protection and fair lending laws, a function that was formerly performed by the depository institution regulators. The Dodd-Frank Act contains various provisions designed to enhance the regulation of depository institutions and prevent the recurrence of a financial crisis such as that which occurred in 2008 and 2009. The Dodd-Frank Act has had and may continue to have a material impact on our operations, particularly through increased regulatory burden and compliance costs. On May 24, 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act, or the EGRRCPA, became law. Among other things, the EGRRCPA changes certain of the regulatory requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act and includes provisions intended to relieve the regulatory burden on community banks. We cannot currently predict the impact of this legislation on us. Any future legislative changes could have a material impact on our profitability, the value of assets held for investment or the value of collateral for loans. Future legislative changes could also require changes to business practices and potentially expose us to additional costs, liabilities, enforcement action and reputational risk.
These bank regulators possess broad authority to prevent or remedy unsafe or unsound practices or violations of law. Following examinations, we may be required, among other things, to change our asset valuations or the amounts of required loan loss allowances or to restrict our operations, as well as increase our capital levels, which could adversely affect our results of operations. The laws and regulations applicable to the banking industry could change at any time and we cannot predict the effects of these changes on our business, profitability or growth strategy. Increased regulation could increase our cost of compliance and adversely affect profitability. Moreover, certain of these regulations contain significant punitive sanctions for violations, including monetary penalties and limitations on a banks ability to implement components of its business plan, such as expansion through mergers and acquisitions or the opening of new branch offices. In addition, changes in regulatory requirements may add costs associated with compliance efforts. Furthermore, government policy and regulation, particularly as implemented through the Federal Reserve, significantly affect credit conditions. Negative developments in the financial industry and the impact of new legislation and regulation in response to those developments could negatively impact our business operations and adversely impact our financial performance.
We are subject to commercial real estate lending guidance issued by the federal banking regulators that impacts our operations and capital requirements.
The federal bank regulators have issued final guidance regarding concentrations in commercial real estate lending directed at institutions that have concentrations of acquisition, development, and construction, or ADC, loans and non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans within their lending portfolios. In general, the guidance establishes the following supervisory criteria as preliminary indications of possible concentration risk: (1) the institutions total ADC loans represent 100% or more of total capital; or (2) total non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans represent 300% or more of total capital, and such loans have increased by 50% or more during the prior 36-month period. This guidance suggests that institutions whose commercial real estate loans exceed these guidelines should implement heightened risk management practices appropriate to their concentration risk and may be required to maintain higher capital ratios than institutions with lower concentrations in commercial real estate lending. Our ADC loans comprise 75.3% of the Banks capital, and our non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans comprise 208.0% of the Banks capital. Over the prior 36 months, our non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans have increased 15.5%. Although we are below the concentrations set forth in the guidance, we cannot guarantee that any risk management practices we implement will be effective to prevent losses relating to our commercial real estate portfolio. Management has implemented controls to monitor the Banks commercial real estate lending concentrations, but we cannot predict the extent to which this guidance will impact our operations or capital requirements.
Legislative and regulatory actions taken now or in the future may increase our costs and impact our business, governance structure, financial condition or results of operations. Proposed legislative and regulatory actions, including changes to financial regulation, may not occur on the timeframe that is expected, or at all, which could result in additional uncertainty for our business.
We are subject to extensive regulation by multiple regulatory bodies. These regulations may affect the manner and terms of delivery of our services. If we do not comply with governmental regulations, we may be subject to fines, penalties, lawsuits or material restrictions on our businesses which may adversely affect our business operations. Changes in these regulations can significantly affect the services that we provide as well as our costs of compliance with such regulations. In addition, adverse publicity and damage to our reputation arising from the failure or perceived failure to comply with legal, regulatory or contractual requirements could affect our ability to attract and retain customers.
Current and past economic conditions, particularly in the financial markets, have resulted in government regulatory agencies and political bodies placing increased focus and scrutiny on the financial services industry. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act significantly changed the regulation of financial institutions and the financial services industry. In addition, new proposals for legislation continue to be introduced in the U.S. Congress that could further substantially increase regulation of the financial services industry, impose restrictions on the operations and general ability of firms within the industry to conduct business consistent with historical practices, including in the areas of compensation, interest rates, financial product offerings and disclosures, and have an effect on bankruptcy proceedings with respect to consumer residential real estate mortgages, among other things. Federal and state regulatory agencies also frequently adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. President Donald Trump issued an executive order directing the review of existing financial regulations. The Trump administration has also indicated in public statements that the Dodd-Frank Act will be under scrutiny and that some of its provisions and the rules promulgated thereunder may be revised, repealed or amended. In May 2018, Congress passed the EGRRCPA that provides for certain regulatory relief for community banks, including mortgage lending relief, treatment of reciprocal deposits and capital simplification.
Certain aspects of current or proposed regulatory or legislative changes, including laws applicable to the financial industry and federal and state taxation, if enacted or adopted, may impact the profitability of our business activities, require more oversight or change certain of our business practices, including the ability to offer new products, obtain financing, attract deposits, make loans and achieve satisfactory interest spreads, and could expose us to additional costs, including increased compliance costs. These changes also may require us to invest significant management attention and resources to make any necessary changes to operations to comply,
and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any proposed legislative or regulatory changes, including those that could benefit our business, financial condition and results of operations, may not occur on the timeframe that is proposed, or at all, which could result in additional uncertainty for our business.
Many of our new activities and expansion plans require regulatory approvals, and failure to obtain them may restrict our growth.
As part of our growth strategy, we may expand our business by pursuing strategic acquisitions of financial institutions and other complementary businesses. Generally, we must receive federal regulatory approval before we can acquire an FDIC-insured depository institution or related business. In determining whether to approve a proposed acquisition, federal banking regulators will consider, among other factors, the effect of the acquisition on competition, our financial condition, our future prospects and the impact of the proposal on U.S. financial stability. The regulators also review current and projected capital ratios, the competence, experience and integrity of management and its record of compliance with laws and regulations, the convenience and needs of the communities to be served (including the acquiring institutions record of compliance under the Community Reinvestment Act, or the CRA) and the effectiveness of the acquiring institution in combating money laundering activities. Such regulatory approvals may not be granted on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. We may also be required to sell banking locations as a condition to receiving regulatory approval, which condition may not be acceptable to us or, if acceptable to us, may reduce the benefit of any acquisition.
In addition to the acquisition of existing financial institutions, as opportunities arise, we may continue de novo branching as a part of our expansion strategy. De novo branching and acquisitions carry with them numerous risks, including the inability to obtain all required regulatory approvals. The failure to obtain these regulatory approvals for potential future strategic acquisitions and de novo banking locations could impact our business plans and restrict our growth.
The Federal Reserve may require the Company to commit capital resources to support the Bank.
As a matter of policy, the Federal Reserve expects a bank holding company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to a subsidiary bank and to commit resources to support such subsidiary bank. The Dodd-Frank Act codified the Federal Reserves policy on serving as a source of financial strength. Under the source of strength doctrine, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank and may charge the Bank holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failing to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank. A capital injection may be required at times when the holding company may not have the resources to provide and therefore may be required to borrow the funds or raise capital. Any loans by a holding company to its subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. In the event of a bank holding companys bankruptcy, the bankruptcy trustee will assume any commitment by the holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank.
Moreover, bankruptcy law provides that claims based on any such commitment will be entitled to a priority of payment over the claims of the institutions general unsecured creditors, including the holders of its note obligations. Thus, any borrowing by the Company in order to make the required capital injection becomes more difficult and expensive and will adversely impact the Companys financial condition, results of operations and/or future prospects.
As a regulated entity, we and the Bank must maintain certain required levels of regulatory capital that may limit our and the Banks operations and potential growth.
We and Bank are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by the FDIC and the Federal Reserve, respectively. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can initiate certain mandatory, and possibly additional discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have a direct material effect on our financial statements and the Companys consolidated financial statements. Under capital adequacy guidelines and the regulatory framework for prompt corrective action, we must meet specific capital guidelines that involve quantitative measures of our assets, liabilities and certain off-balance sheet commitments as calculated under these regulations.
Quantitative measures established by regulation to ensure capital adequacy require the Bank to maintain minimum amounts and defined ratios of total and tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets and of tier 1 capital to
adjusted total assets, also known as the leverage ratio. As of December 31, 2018, we exceeded the amounts required to be well-capitalized with respect to all three required capital ratios. As of December 31, 2018, the Banks common equity tier 1, tier 1 leverage, tier 1 risk-based capital and total risk-based capital ratios were 9.91%, 9.63%, 11.98% and 14.28%, respectively.
Many factors affect the calculation of our risk-based assets and our ability to maintain the level of capital required to achieve acceptable capital ratios. For example, changes in risk weightings of assets relative to capital and other factors may combine to increase the amount of risk-weighted assets in the tier 1 risk-based capital ratio and the total risk-based capital ratio. Any increases in our risk-weighted assets will require a corresponding increase in our capital to maintain the applicable ratios. In addition, recognized loan losses in excess of amounts reserved for such losses, loan impairments, impairment losses on securities and other factors will decrease our capital, thereby reducing the level of the applicable ratios.
The federal banking regulators released a proposed rulemaking on November 21, 2018 that could, if enacted, provide certain banks and their holding companies with the option to substitute compliance with a community bank leverage ratio framework in lieu of the existing capital requirements. The Company will continue to monitor this rulemaking. If and when the rulemaking goes into effect, the Company and the Bank will consider whether it would be possible and advantageous at that time to substitute compliance with a community bank leverage ratio framework in lieu of the existing capital requirements. In any case, the prompt corrective action framework would still apply to the Bank. See Supervision and Regulation—Regulatory Capital Requirements.
Our failure to remain well-capitalized for bank regulatory purposes, either under the existing capital requirements or under the proposed community bank leverage ratio framework, if applicable, could affect customer confidence, our ability to grow, our costs of funds and FDIC insurance costs, our ability to pay dividends to the Company and the Companys ability to pay dividends on its common stock, the Companys ability to make acquisitions and on our and the Companys business, results of operations and financial condition. Under regulatory rules, if we cease to be a well-capitalized institution for bank regulatory purposes, the interest rates that we pay on deposits and our ability to accept brokered deposits may be restricted.
Bank regulatory agencies periodically examine our business, including compliance with laws and regulations, and our failure to comply with any supervisory actions to which we become subject as a result of such examinations could materially and adversely affect us.
Our regulators periodically examine our business, including our compliance with laws and regulations. Accommodating such examinations may require management to reallocate resources, which could otherwise be used in the day-to-day operation of other aspects of our business. If, as a result of an examination, a banking agency were to determine that our financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity or other aspects of our operations had become unsatisfactory, or that we were, or our management was, in violation of any law or regulation, they may take a number of different remedial actions as they deem appropriate. These actions include the power to enjoin unsafe or unsound practices, to require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital, to restrict our growth, to assess civil money penalties against us, our officers or directors, to fine or remove officers and directors and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate the Banks FDIC deposit insurance and place the Bank into receivership or conservatorship. Any regulatory action against us could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to maintain sufficient capital under regulatory requirements, whether due to losses, an inability to raise additional capital or otherwise, that failure could adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations, as well as our ability to maintain regulatory compliance.
We must meet regulatory capital requirements and maintain sufficient liquidity. The Companys ability to raise additional capital, when and if needed to support the Bank, will depend on conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions and a number of other factors, including investor preferences regarding the banking industry and market condition and governmental activities, many of which are outside the Companys
control, and on the Companys financial condition and performance. Accordingly, the Company may not be able to raise additional capital if needed or on terms acceptable to the Company. If we fail to meet these capital and other regulatory requirements, our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Monetary policy and other economic factors could affect our profitability adversely.
The following factors will affect the demand for loans and our ability to attract deposits:
|•||changes in governmental economic and monetary policies;|
|•||the Code, and banking and credit regulations;|
|•||national, state and local economic growth rates;|
|•||employment rates; and|
Our success depends in significant part upon our ability to maintain a sufficient net interest margin between the rates of interest we receive on loans and other investments and the rates we pay out on deposits and other liabilities. The monetary and economic factors listed above, and the need to pay rates sufficient to attract deposits, may adversely affect our ability to maintain an interest margin sufficient to result in operating profits.
Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could have serious reputational consequences for us.
The Bank Secrecy Act, or BSA, the USA PATRIOT Act and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain effective anti-money laundering programs and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The federal Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, established by the U.S. Treasury to administer the BSA, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal bank regulators, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and Internal Revenue Service. There is also increased scrutiny of compliance with the rules enforced by the OFAC. Federal and state bank regulators also have begun to focus on compliance with BSA and anti-money laundering regulations. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we could be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions such as restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us.
Regulations relating to privacy, information security and data protection could increase our costs, affect or limit how we collect and use personal information and adversely affect our business opportunities.
We are subject to various privacy, information security and data protection laws, including requirements concerning security breach notification, and we could be negatively impacted by these laws. For example, our business is subject to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act which, among other things: (i) imposes certain limitations on our ability to share non-public personal information about our customers with non-affiliated third parties; (ii) requires that we provide certain disclosures to customers about our information collection, sharing and security practices and afford customers the right to opt out of any information sharing by us with non-affiliated third parties (with certain exceptions) and (iii) requires we develop, implement and maintain a written comprehensive information security program containing safeguards appropriate based on our size and complexity, the nature and scope of our activities and the sensitivity of customer information we process, as well as plans for responding to data security breaches. Various state and federal banking regulators and states have also enacted data security breach notification requirements with varying levels of individual, consumer, regulatory or law enforcement notification in certain circumstances in the event of a security breach. Moreover, legislators and regulators in the United States are increasingly adopting or revising privacy, information security and data protection laws that potentially could have a significant impact on our current and planned privacy, data protection and information security-related practices, our collection, use, sharing, retention and safeguarding of
consumer or employee information, and some of our current or planned business activities. This could also increase our costs of compliance and business operations and could reduce income from certain business initiatives. This includes increased privacy-related enforcement activity at the federal level by the Federal Trade Commission, as well as at the state level.
Compliance with current or future privacy, data protection and information security laws (including those regarding security breach notification) affecting customer or employee data to which we are subject could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions or results of operations. Our failure to comply with privacy, data protection and information security laws could result in potentially significant regulatory or governmental investigations or actions, litigation, fines, sanctions and damage to our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We face increased risk under the terms of the CRA, as we accept additional deposits in new geographic markets.
Under the terms of the CRA, each appropriate federal bank regulatory agency is required, in connection with its examination of a bank, to assess such banks record in assessing and meeting the credit needs of the communities served by that bank, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. During these examinations, the regulatory agency rates such banks compliance with the CRA as Outstanding, Satisfactory, Needs to Improve or Substantial Noncompliance. The regulatory agencys assessment of the institutions record is part of the regulatory agencys consideration of applications to acquire, merge or consolidate with another banking institution or its holding company, or to open or relocate a branch office.
As we accept additional deposits in new geographic markets, we will be required to maintain an acceptable CRA rating. Maintaining an acceptable CRA rating may become more difficult as our deposits increase across new geographic markets.
We are subject to certain restrictions related to interstate banking and branching, including restrictions on interstate deposits.
The Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994, or Interstate Act, together with the Dodd-Frank Act, relaxed prior interstate branching restrictions under federal law by permitting, subject to regulatory approval, commercial banks to establish branches in states where the laws permit banks chartered in such states to establish branches. As discussed in this prospectus, the Bank operates branches in Texas and New Mexico. Federal banking agency regulations prohibit banks from using their interstate branches primarily for deposit production, and the federal banking agencies have implemented a loan-to-deposit ratio screen to ensure compliance with this prohibition, the purpose of which is to ensure that interstate branches do not take deposits from a community without the bank reasonably helping to meet the credit needs of that community.
The prohibition on establishing interstate branches for the purpose of deposit production, and the corresponding regulatory loan-to-deposit restrictions, could limit our ability to establish branches outside of Texas. We believe that the Banks operations are in compliance with the Interstate Act. In addition, we believe that the Bank is reasonably helping to meet the credit needs of the communities served by the Banks New Mexico branches. If, however, the FDIC were to determine that the Bank is not reasonably helping to meet the credit needs of the communities served by the Banks New Mexico branches, then the FDIC could require the Banks New Mexico branches to be closed or not permit the Bank to open new branches in New Mexico.
We are subject to federal and state fair lending laws, and failure to comply with these laws could lead to material penalties.
Federal and state fair lending laws and regulations, such as the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, or ECOA, and the Fair Housing Act, or FHA, impose nondiscriminatory lending requirements on financial institutions. The Department of Justice, CFPB and other federal and state agencies are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge an institutions performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation.
A successful challenge to our performance under the fair lending laws and regulations could adversely impact our rating under the CRA and result in a wide variety of sanctions, including the required payment of
damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, imposition of restrictions on merger and acquisition activity and restrictions on expansion activity, which could negatively impact our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to liability for potential violations of predatory lending laws, which could adversely impact our results of operations, financial condition and business.
Various U.S. federal, state and local laws have been enacted that are designed to discourage predatory lending practices. The U.S. Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994, or HOEPA, prohibits inclusion of certain provisions in mortgages that have interest rates or origination costs in excess of prescribed levels and requires that borrowers be given certain disclosures prior to origination. Some states have enacted, or may enact, similar laws or regulations, which in some cases impose restrictions and requirements greater than those in HOEPA. In addition, under the anti-predatory lending laws of some states, the origination of certain mortgages, including loans that are not classified as high-cost loans under applicable law, must satisfy a net tangible benefit test with respect to the related borrower. Such tests may be highly subjective and open to interpretation. As a result, a court may determine that a home mortgage, for example, does not meet the test even if the related originator reasonably believed that the test was satisfied. If any of our mortgages are found to have been originated in violation of predatory or abusive lending laws, we could incur losses, which could adversely impact our results of operations, financial condition and business.
Regulatory agencies and consumer advocacy groups have asserted claims that the practices of lenders and loan servicers result in a disparate impact on protected classes.
Antidiscrimination statutes, such as FHA and ECOA, prohibit creditors from discriminating against loan applicants and borrowers based on certain characteristics, such as race, religion and national origin. Various federal regulatory agencies and departments, including the DOJ and the CFPB, have taken the position that these laws apply not only to intentional discrimination, but also to neutral practices that have a disparate impact on a group that shares a characteristic that a creditor may not consider in making credit decisions protected classes (i.e., creditor or servicing practices that have a disproportionate negative affect on a protected class of individuals).
These regulatory agencies, as well as consumer advocacy groups and plaintiffs attorneys, have focused greater attention on disparate impact claims. The U.S. Supreme Court has confirmed that the disparate impact theory applies to cases brought under FHA, while emphasizing that a causal relationship must be shown between a specific policy of the defendant and a discriminatory result that is not justified by a legitimate objective of the defendant. Although it is still unclear whether the theory applies under ECOA, regulatory agencies and private plaintiffs may continue to apply it to both FHA and ECOA in the context of mortgage lending and servicing. To the extent that the disparate impact theory continues to apply, we are faced with significant administrative burdens in attempting to comply and potential liability for failures to comply.
In addition to reputational harm, violations of FHA and ECOA can result in actual damages, punitive damages, injunctive or equitable relief, attorneys fees and civil money penalties.
Risks Related to this Offering and an Investment in Our Common Stock
There has been no prior active trading market for our common stock, and we cannot assure you that an active public trading market will develop after the offering; and, even if it does, our share price may trade below the public offering price and be subject to substantial volatility.
There has been no public market for our common stock prior to this offering. We cannot predict the extent to which investor interest in our Company will lead to the development of an active trading market on the NASDAQ Global Select Market or otherwise, or how liquid that market may become, especially if few stock analysts follow our stock or issue research reports concerning our business. In addition, more than 50% of our outstanding shares will be restricted from trading for a period of 180 days after the date of this prospectus, resulting in a limited number of our shares available to be traded in the public market. If an active trading market does not develop, you may have difficulty selling any shares that you buy in this offering. Neither the underwriters nor any other market maker in our common stock will be obligated to make a market in our shares, and any such market making may be discontinued at any time in the sole discretion of each market maker. The initial public offering price for our common stock has been determined through negotiations between us, the
selling shareholders and the underwriters and may not be indicative of prices that will prevail in the open market following this offering. Consequently, you may not be able to sell your shares of common stock at or above the public offering price or at any other price or at the time that you would like to sell. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling our common stock and may impair our ability to expand our business by using our common stock as consideration in an acquisition.
The price of our common stock could be volatile following this offering.
Even if a market develops for our common stock after the offering, the market price of our common stock may be volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in price in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include, among other things:
|•||actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly or annual results of operations;|
|•||recommendations by securities analysts;|
|•||operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;|
|•||news reports relating to trends, concerns and other issues in the financial services industry generally;|
|•||conditions in the banking industry such as credit quality and monetary policies;|
|•||perceptions in the marketplace regarding us or our competitors;|
|•||fluctuations in the stock price and operating results of our competitors;|
|•||domestic and international economic factors unrelated to our performance;|
|•||general market conditions and, in particular, developments related to market conditions for the financial services industry;|
|•||new technology used, or services offered, by competitors; and|
|•||changes in government regulations.|
In addition, if the market for stocks in our industry, or the stock market in general, experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition or results of operations. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and be a distraction to management.
We will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and we may not use the proceeds effectively.
We are not required to apply any portion of the net proceeds of this offering for any particular purpose. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds of this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Our shareholders may not agree with the manner in which our management chooses to allocate and spend the net proceeds. A portion of the proceeds may be used to provide additional capital as a cushion against minimum regulatory capital requirements, which may reduce our return on equity as opposed to if such proceeds were used for further growth. Moreover, our management may use the net proceeds for corporate purposes that may not increase our market value or profitability. We cannot predict whether the proceeds from this offering will be invested to yield a favorable return.
The obligations associated with being a public company will require significant resources and management attention, which will increase our costs of operations and may divert focus from our business operations.
As a public company, we will face increased legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses that we have not incurred as a private company, particularly after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company. After the completion of this offering, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, which requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition and proxy and other information statements, and the rules and regulations implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, the Public
Company Accounting Oversight Board and the NASDAQ Global Select Market, each of which imposes additional reporting and other obligations on public companies. As a public company, compliance with these reporting requirements and other SEC and the NASDAQ Global Select Market rules will make certain operating activities more time-consuming, and we will also incur significant new legal, accounting, insurance and other expenses. Furthermore, the need to establish the corporate infrastructure demanded of a public company may divert managements attention from implementing our operating strategy, which could prevent us from successfully implementing our strategic initiatives and improving our results of operations. We have made, and will continue to make, changes to our internal controls and procedures for financial reporting and accounting systems to meet our reporting obligations as a public company. However, we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur in order to comply with these requirements. We anticipate that these costs will materially increase our general and administrative expenses and such increases will reduce our profitability.
Securities analysts may not initiate or continue coverage on us.
The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities analysts publish about us and our business. We do not have any control over these securities analysts, and they may not cover us. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to publish regular reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price or trading volume of our common stock to decline. If we are covered by securities analysts and are the subject of an unfavorable report, the price of our common stock may decline.
You will experience immediate dilution in the book value of the shares you purchase in this offering.
Investors purchasing common stock in this offering will pay more for their shares than the amount paid by existing shareholders who acquired shares prior to this offering. You will incur immediate dilution of approximately $ per share if you purchase common stock in this offering, representing the difference between the initial public offering price of $ per share and our adjusted tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering.
Shares of certain shareholders may be sold into the public market in the near future. This could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly.
In connection with this offering, we, our directors, our executive officers and certain of our principal shareholders have each agreed to enter into lock-up agreements that restrict the sale of their holdings of our common stock for a period of 180 days after the date of this prospectus, subject to an extension in certain circumstances. When these lock-up agreements expire, these shares and the shares underlying any options held by these individuals will become eligible for sale, in some cases subject only to the volume, manner of sale and notice requirements of Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. In addition, we estimate that immediately following this offering, approximately % of our outstanding common stock will be beneficially owned by our principal shareholders, executive officers and directors. The substantial amount of common stock that is owned by and issuable to certain of our principal shareholders, executive officers and directors may adversely affect our share price, our share price volatility and the development of an active and liquid trading market. The sale of these shares could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
Future equity issuances could result in dilution, which could cause the price of our shares of common stock to decline.
We are generally not restricted from issuing additional shares of common stock, up to the 30,000,000 shares of voting common stock and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock authorized in our certificate of formation. In addition, effective March 20, 2019, in connection with this offering, our board of directors approved for Cory T. Newsom, our President, a stock-settled restricted stock unit award having a fair market value of $1,000,000 on the date of grant and incentive stock options covering 10,342 shares of common stock. Both equity awards vest over a 4-year period. See Executive Compensation—Employment Agreement with Cory T. Newsom for a further discussion of these awards. We may issue additional shares of our common stock in the future pursuant to current or future equity compensation plans, upon conversions of preferred stock or debt, upon exercise of
warrants or in connection with future acquisitions or financings. If we choose to raise capital by selling shares of our common stock, or securities convertible into shares of our common stock, for any reason, the issuance could have a dilutive effect on the holders of our common stock and could have a material negative effect on the market price of our common stock.
We may issue shares of preferred stock in the future, which could make it difficult for another company to acquire us or could otherwise adversely affect holders of our common stock.
Although there are currently no shares of our preferred stock outstanding, our certificate of formation authorizes us to issue up to 1,000,000 shares of one or more series of preferred stock. The board of directors has the power to set the terms of any series of preferred stock that may be issued, including voting rights, conversion rights, preferences over our voting common stock with respect to dividends or in the event of a dissolution, liquidation or winding up and other terms. If we issue preferred stock in the future that has preference over our common stock with respect to payment of dividends or upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or if we issue preferred stock with voting rights that dilute the voting power of our common stock, the rights of the holders of our common stock or the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
Our board of directors, executive officers and principal shareholders have significant control over our business.
As of April 12, 2019, our directors, executive officers and principal shareholders beneficially owned an aggregate of 5,632,590 shares of our common stock, or approximately 37.2% of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock. Following the completion of this offering, that same group will beneficially own in the aggregate approximately % of our outstanding common stock (or % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares), excluding any shares that may be purchased in this offering by our directors and executive officers through the directed share program described in Underwriting—Directed Share Program. Consequently, our directors, executive officers and principal shareholders will be able to significantly affect our affairs and policies, including the outcome of the election of directors and the potential outcome of other matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, such as mergers, the sale of substantially all of our assets and other extraordinary corporate matters. This influence may also have the effect of delaying or preventing changes of control or changes in management, or limiting the ability of our other shareholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in the best interests of our Company. The interests of these insiders could conflict with the interests of our other shareholders, including you.
In addition, pursuant to a separate Board Representation Agreement, dated March 7, 2019, between the Company and James C. Henry, for so long as Mr. Henry or his spouse, or a lineal descendant of the Henrys, or an entity formed for their benefit, holds in aggregate 5.0% or more of our outstanding shares of common stock, the Company must nominate their representative to serve on the board of directors of each of the Company and the Bank, subject to any required regulatory and shareholder approvals. We do not expect the governance rights under the Board Representation Agreement to terminate in connection with this offering. See Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Board Representation Agreement for additional information.
We have limited the circumstances in which our directors will be liable for monetary damages.
We have included in our certificate of formation a provision to eliminate the liability of directors for monetary damages to the maximum extent permitted by Texas law. The effect of this provision will be to reduce the situations in which we or our shareholders will be able to seek monetary damages from our directors.
Our certificate of formation also has a provision providing for indemnification of our directors and executive officers and advancement of expenses to the fullest extent permitted or required by Texas law, including circumstances in which indemnification is otherwise discretionary. We have also entered into agreements with our officers and directors in which we similarly agree to provide indemnification that is otherwise discretionary. Such indemnification may be available for liabilities arising in connection with this offering.
Our bylaws have an exclusive forum provision, which could limit a shareholders ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.
Our bylaws have an exclusive forum provision providing that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, Lubbock Division, or in the event that such court lacks jurisdiction to hear the action, the District Courts of the County of Lubbock, Texas, are the sole
and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim for breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, employee or agent of the Company to the Company or the Companys shareholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Texas Business Organizations Code, or TBOC, the certificate of formation or the bylaws or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in each case subject to said courts having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act, and Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Our bylaws do not expressly provide that the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, Lubbock Division, or in the event that such court lacks jurisdiction to hear the action, the District Courts of the County of Lubbock, Texas, are the sole and exclusive forum for claims that arise under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or other federal securities laws. Any person purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this provision of our bylaws. Shareholders will not be deemed to have waived the Companys compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. The exclusive forum provision may limit a shareholders ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits. Alternatively, if a court were to find the exclusive forum provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our dividend policy may change without notice, and our future ability to pay dividends is subject to restrictions.
Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive only such cash dividends as our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for such payments. Any declaration and payment of dividends on our common stock will depend upon our earnings and financial condition, liquidity and capital requirements, the general economic and regulatory climate, our ability to service any equity or debt obligations senior to our common stock and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Furthermore, consistent with our strategic plans, growth initiatives, capital availability, projected liquidity needs and other factors, we have made, and will continue to make, capital management decisions and policies that could adversely affect the amount of dividends, if any, paid to our common shareholders.
The Federal Reserve has indicated that bank holding companies should carefully review their dividend policy in relation to the organizations overall asset quality, current and prospective earnings and level, composition and quality of capital. The guidance provides that we inform and consult with the Federal Reserve prior to declaring and paying a dividend that exceeds earnings for the period for which the dividend is being paid or that could result in an adverse change to our capital structure, including interest on any debt obligations.
If required payments on our debt obligations are not made, or dividends on any preferred stock we may issue are not paid, we will be prohibited from paying dividends on our common stock.
We are a bank holding company and our only source of cash, other than further issuances of securities, is distributions from the Bank.
We are a bank holding company with no material activities other than activities incidental to holding the common stock of the Bank. Our principal source of funds to pay distributions on our common stock and service any of our obligations, other than further issuances of securities, would be dividends received from the Bank. Furthermore, the Bank is not obligated to pay dividends to us, and any dividends paid to us would depend on the earnings or financial condition of the Bank and various business considerations. As is the case with all financial institutions, the profitability of the Bank is subject to the fluctuating cost and availability of money, changes in interest rates and in economic conditions in general. In addition, various federal and state statutes limit the amount of dividends that the Bank may pay to the Company without regulatory approval.
We are an emerging growth company, and the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of reduced regulatory and reporting requirements that are
otherwise generally applicable to public companies. These include, without limitation, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced financial reporting requirements, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. The JOBS Act also permits an emerging growth company such as us to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We have elected to, and expect to continue to, take advantage of certain of these and other exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. Further, the JOBS Act allows us to present only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related managements discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations and provide less than five years of selected financial data in this prospectus.
We may take advantage of these provisions for up to five years, unless we earlier cease to be an emerging growth company, which would occur if our annual gross revenues exceed $1.07 billion, if we issue more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt in a three-year period or if we become a large accelerated filer, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions, or if we choose to rely on additional exemptions in the future. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our share price may be more volatile.
An investment in our common stock is not an insured deposit and is subject to risk of loss.
Your investment in our common stock will not be a bank deposit and, therefore, will not be insured against loss or guaranteed by the FDIC, any deposit insurance fund or by any other public or private entity. Investment in our common stock is inherently risky for the reasons described herein, and is subject to similar market forces that may affect the price of common stock in any other company. As a result, if you acquire our common stock, you could lose some or all of your investment.
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events and our financial performance. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as may, might, should, could, predict, potential, believe, expect, continue, will, anticipate, seek, estimate, intend, plan, strive, projection, goal, target, outlook, aim, would, annualized and outlook, or the negative version of those words or other comparable words or phrases of a future or forward-looking nature. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, managements beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date made, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
There are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the following:
|•||our ability to effectively execute our expansion strategy and manage our growth, including identifying and consummating suitable acquisitions;|
|•||business and economic conditions, particularly those affecting our market areas, as well as the concentration of our business in such market areas;|
|•||high concentrations of loans secured by real estate located in our market areas;|
|•||risks associated with our commercial loan portfolio, including the risk for deterioration in value of the general business assets that secure such loans;|
|•||potential changes in the prices, values and sales volumes of commercial and residential real estate securing our real estate loans;|
|•||risks associated with our agricultural loan portfolio, including the heightened sensitivity to weather conditions, commodity prices, and other factors generally outside the borrowers and our control;|
|•||risks associated with the sale of crop insurance products, including termination of or substantial changes to the Federal crop insurance program;|
|•||risks related to the significant amount of credit that we have extended to a limited number of borrowers and in a limited geographic area;|
|•||public funds deposits comprising a relatively high percentage of our deposits;|
|•||our ability to maintain our reputation;|
|•||our ability to successfully manage our credit risk and the sufficiency of our allowance;|
|•||our ability to attract, hire and retain qualified management personnel;|
|•||our dependence on our management team, including our ability to retain executive officers and key employees and their customer and community relationships;|
|•||interest rate fluctuations, which could have an adverse effect on our profitability;|
|•||competition from banks, credit unions and other financial services providers;|
|•||our ability to keep pace with technological change or difficulties when implementing new technologies;|
|•||system failures, service denials, cyber-attacks and security breaches;|
|•||our ability to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting;|
|•||employee error, fraudulent activity by employees or customers and inaccurate or incomplete information about our customers and counterparties;|
|•||increased capital requirements imposed by banking regulators, which may require us to raise capital at a time when capital is not available on favorable terms or at all;|
|•||our ability to maintain adequate liquidity and to raise necessary capital to fund our acquisition strategy and operations or to meet increased minimum regulatory capital levels;|
|•||costs and effects of litigation, investigations or similar matters to which we may be subject, including any effect on our reputation;|
|•||severe weather, acts of god, acts of war or terrorism;|
|•||compliance with governmental and regulatory requirements, including the Dodd-Frank Act and others relating to banking, consumer protection, securities and tax matters;|
|•||changes in the laws, rules, regulations, interpretations or policies relating to financial institutions, accounting, tax, trade, monetary and fiscal matters, including the policies of the Federal Reserve and as a result of initiatives of the Trump administration; and|
|•||other factors that are discussed in the section entitled Risk Factors, beginning on page 13.|
The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this prospectus. Because of these risks and other uncertainties, our actual future results, performance or achievements, or industry results, may be materially different from the results indicated by the forward-looking statements in this prospectus. In addition, our past results of operations are not necessarily indicative of our future results. Accordingly, you should not rely on any forward-looking statements, which represent our beliefs, assumptions and estimates only as of the dates on which such forward-looking statements were made. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as required by law.
We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses, will be approximately $ million, based on an assumed public offering price of $ per share (the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus). Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed public offering price of $ per share would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $ million. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling shareholders.
We intend to use the net proceeds to us from this offering, which we estimate to be approximately $ million (after deducting underwriting discounts and the estimated offering expenses) to support future growth of our business, including through strategic acquisitions and organic growth, and for general corporate purposes.
Our management will retain broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds of this offering. The precise amounts and timing of our use of the proceeds will depend upon market conditions and other factors.
The following table shows the Companys capitalization, including regulatory capital ratios, on a consolidated basis, as of December 31, 2018 on:
|•||an actual basis; and|
|•||a pro forma basis, assuming that the ESOP Repurchase Right Termination occurred as of December 31, 2018; and|
|•||a pro forma as adjusted basis giving effect to the ESOP Repurchase Right Termination and the sale of shares of common stock by us in this offering and the receipt of the net proceeds from the sale of these shares, at an assumed initial public offering price of $ per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.|
The as adjusted information below is illustrative only, and our capitalization following the closing of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. You should read the following table in conjunction with the sections titled Selected Historical Consolidated Financial and Operating Information and Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Subordinated debt securities
Trust preferred securities(1)
Commitments and contingent liabilities:
Preferred stock, par value $1.00 per share, 1,000,000 shares authorized; none issued or outstanding
Common stock, voting, par value $1.00 per share, 30,000,000 shares authorized; 14,771,520 shares outstanding; shares outstanding, as adjusted
Accumulated other comprehensive income
Total shareholders’ equity, including ESOP-owned shares
Less: ESOP-owned shares
Total shareholders’ equity, net of ESOP-owned shares
Total shareholders’ equity to total assets
Tangible common equity to tangible assets(2)
Common equity tier 1 capital ratio
Tier 1 leverage ratio
Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio
Total risk-based capital ratio
|(1)||For purposes of capitalization, trust preferred securities are used rather than junior subordinated deferrable interest debentures which is in accordance with capitalization requirements.|
|(2)||Represents a non-GAAP financial measure. We did not have any goodwill or other intangible assets as of the years ended December 31, 2014 to 2018. See our reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures under the caption Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.|
If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent the public offering price per share exceeds our tangible book value per share immediately following this offering. Tangible book value per share is equal to our total shareholders equity less goodwill and other intangible assets, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding at the end of the relevant period. Tangible book value per share is a non-GAAP financial measure. The most directly comparable GAAP financial measure is book value per share. See our reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures under the caption Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.
After giving effect to the ESOP Repurchase Right Termination and our sale of shares in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $ per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and offering expenses payable by us, the pro forma tangible book value of our common stock as of December 31, 2018 would have been approximately $ million, or $ per share. Therefore, under those assumptions this offering would result in an immediate increase of $ in the tangible book value to our existing shareholders and immediate dilution of $ in the tangible book value per share to investors purchasing shares in this offering, or approximately % of the public offering price of $ per share.
The following table illustrates this per share dilution.
Assumed public offering price per share
Tangible book value per share at December 31, 2018 after giving effect to the ESOP Repurchase Right Termination
Increase in tangible book value per share attributable to this offering
As adjusted tangible book value per share after this offering and the ESOP Repurchase Right Termination
Dilution in tangible book value per share to new investors
A $1.00 increase (or decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $ per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (or decrease) the as adjusted tangible book value per share after this offering by approximately $ , and dilution in tangible book value per share to new investors by approximately $ , assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of common stock from us in this offering, the as adjusted tangible book value after this offering would be $ per share, the increase in net tangible book value to existing shareholders would be $ per share and the dilution to new investors would be $ per share, in each case assuming an initial public offering price of $ per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus.
The following table summarizes the total consideration paid to us and the average price paid per share by existing shareholders and investors purchasing common stock in this offering. This information is presented on a pro forma basis as of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to our sale of shares of common stock in this offering, assuming the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of common stock from us in this offering, at an initial public offering price of $ per share, which is the midpoint of the price range on the cover of this prospectus.
Shareholders as of December 31, 2018
New investors in this offering
|(1)||Calculated as $ million in common stock plus $ million in additional paid-in capital.|
In addition, if the underwriters option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, the number of shares of common stock held by existing shareholders will be further reduced to % of the total number of shares of common stock to be outstanding upon the completion of this offering, and the number of shares of common stock held by investors participating in this offering will be further increased to shares or % of the total number of shares of common stock to be outstanding upon the completion of this offering.
The tables above exclude 2,300,000 shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under the 2019 Plan, which was adopted earlier this year. To the extent that we issue shares of our common stock upon the exercise of any options issued under the 2019 Plan, 1,411,342 of which were outstanding as of , 2019, investors participating in this offering will experience further dilution.
Prior to this offering, our common stock has not been traded on an established public trading market and quotations for our common stock were not reported on any market. As a result, there has been no regular trading market for our common stock. Although our shares may have been sporadically traded in private transactions, the prices at which such transactions occurred may not necessarily reflect the price that would be paid for our common stock in an active market. As of December 31, 2018, there were 122 holders of record of our common stock.
We anticipate that this offering and the listing of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market will result in a more active trading market for our common stock. However, we cannot assure you that a liquid trading market for our common stock will develop or be sustained after this offering. You may not be able to sell your shares quickly or at the market price if trading in our common stock is not active. See Underwriting for more information regarding our arrangements with the underwriters and the factors considered in setting the initial public offering price.
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the Selected Historical Consolidated Financial and Operating Information and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Certain risks, uncertainties and other factors, including but not limited to those set forth under Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements, Risk Factors and elsewhere in this prospectus, may cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. We assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements.
We are a bank holding company headquartered in Lubbock, Texas, and our wholly-owned subsidiary, City Bank, is one of the largest independent banks in West Texas. We have additional banking operations in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington and El Paso MSAs, as well as in the Greater Houston, College Station, and Ruidoso and Eastern New Mexico markets. Through City Bank, we provide a wide range of commercial and consumer financial services to small and medium-sized businesses and individuals in our market areas. Our principal business activities include commercial and retail banking, along with insurance, investment, trust and mortgage services.
Termination of Subchapter S Corporation Status
Beginning January 1, 1998, the Company elected to be taxed for U.S. federal income tax purposes as an S Corporation under the provisions of Sections 1361 to 1379 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. While we were an S Corporation, our net income was not subject to, and we did not pay, U.S. federal income tax, and no provision or liability for U.S. federal income tax was included in our consolidated financial statements. Instead, for U.S. federal income tax purposes our taxable income was passed through to our shareholders.
Effective May 31, 2018, the Company revoked its election to be taxed as an S Corporation, we became taxed as a C Corporation under the provisions of Sections 301 to 385 of the Code, and we established a deferred tax asset to reflect the S Corporation revocation. Thus, our net income is now subject to U.S. federal income tax and we bear the liability for those taxes.
As a result of the revocation of our S Corporation election, the net income and earnings per share data presented in our historical financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, which do not include any provision for federal income taxes, will not be comparable with our historical financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, or our future net income and earnings per share, which will be calculated by including a provision for federal income taxes. We had no federal income tax expense for the first five months of 2018. Unless otherwise stated, all information in this prospectus, including consolidated net income, return on average assets, return on average shareholders equity and earnings per share, is presented as if we had converted from an S Corporation to a C Corporation at the beginning of each respective period using a statutory tax rate for federal income taxes of 35.0% prior to January 1, 2018 and 21.0% after January 1, 2018.
While we were an S Corporation, our shareholders were subject to a shareholder agreement that was intended to preserve our S Corporation status, which we amended and restated when we became a C Corporation. At the 2019 annual meeting of shareholders, our shareholders approved the termination of that shareholder agreement.
We had net income of $20.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to net income of $17.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Return on average equity was 9.66% and return on average assets was 0.79% for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to 8.48% and 0.69%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2017. Net income increased by $3.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 2017. This increase was primarily the result of an increase of $7.1 million in net interest income, an
increase of $4.7 million in noninterest income, and a decrease of $1.6 million in income tax expense, offset by an increase of $2.9 million in the provision for loan losses and an increase of $7.3 million in noninterest expense.
Our total assets increased $139.4 million, or 5.4%, to $2.7 billion at December 31, 2018 as compared to $2.6 billion at December 31, 2017. The increase in total assets was primarily the result of our organic loan growth. Our gross loans held for investment increased $119.0 million, or 6.5%, to $2.0 billion at December 31, 2018, compared to $1.8 billion at December 31, 2017. Our securities portfolio increased $54.1 million, or 19.0%, to $338.2 million at December 31, 2018, compared to $284.1 million at December 31, 2017. Total deposits increased $123.4 million, or 5.7% to $2.3 billion at December 31, 2018, compared to $2.2 billion at December 31, 2017. This increase in deposits was used to help fund our growth in loans held for investment.
Pro Forma Income Tax Expense and Net Income
As a result of our prior status as an S Corporation, we had no U.S. federal income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2017 and the first five months of 2018. The pro forma impact of being taxed as a C Corporation is illustrated in the following table:
(Dollars in thousands)